Non-English A foreign abbreviation may be used only after the full English translation is given and both the full foreign language term and abbreviation are given in parentheses immediately following the English.
Use the foreign abbreviation in subsequent text. Do not create an English
abbreviation. For instance:
East Germany (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR) would appear in subsequent text as DDR.
Organizations The names of government agencies, associations, fraternal and service organizations, network broadcasting companies, unions, and other groups are abbreviated using full caps and no periods
ABC FBI, NBC, UN
AFL-CIO FTC NFL UNESCO
CBS NATO OPEC YMCA
(These are spelled out when first used.) The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is responsible for....
Other Abbreviations United States US
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR
Possessive of an Abbreviation To form the possessive of an abbreviation, use a napostrophe and a lowercase "s." e.g. CBS's; YMCA's
Punctuation in Abbreviations Note the use of periods in the following
c. et al. ibid. loc. cit. pro tem. e.g. et seq. i.e. op. cit. q.v.
Don't use periods in abbreviations for people, e.g. Franklin Delano Roosevelt FDR
Required List of Abbreviations A master list of abbreviations of works frequently cited in AIP encyclopedias, serials, and annuals is required at the front of each volume. If an abbreviation is contained in the master list there is no need to define it in an entry.
Science and Technology See Chicago (14.50) for abbreviations
relating to science and technology except use:
bhp brake horsepower kw kilowatt
bp boiling point kwh kilowatt-hour
cp candlepower mpg miles per gallon
cps cycles per second mph miles per hour
hp horsepower rpm revolutions per minute
Social Titles Social titles (Mr., Mrs., Dr., etc.) are always abbreviated.
States Do not use postal abbreviations (ZIP letters).
Alabama Ala. Maine Me. North Dakota N.D.
Arizona Ariz. Maryland Md. Oklahoma Okla.
Arkansas Ark. Massachusetts Mass. Pennsylvania Penn.
California Cal. Michigan Mich. Rhode Island R.I.
Colorado Colo. Minnesota Minn. South Carolina S.C.
Connecticut Conn. Mississippi Miss. South Dakota S.D.
Delaware Del. Missouri Mo. Tennessee Tenn.
District of Columbia Washington, D.C. Montana Mont. Texas Tex.
Florida Fla. Nebraska Neb. Vermont Vt.
Georgia Ga Nevada Nev. Virginia Va.
Illinois Ill.. New Hampshire N.H. Washington Wash.
Indiana Ind. New Jersey N.J. West Virginia W.Va.
Kansas Kan New Mexico N.M. Wisconsin Wis.
Kentucky Ky. New York N.Y. Wyoming Wyo.
Louisiana La.. North Carolina N.C.
Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Ohio, Oregon, Utah are spelled out.
Titles A title may be abbreviated with a full name, e.g. Lt. Gen. John P. Jones.
A title with a surname alone must be spelled, e.g. Lieutenant General Jones.
Unlisted Abbreviations Any abbreviation used in entries that is not contained in a master list for the volume or is not listed in Chicago must be spelled out at first mention with the abbreviation in parentheses.
Unusual Abbreviations If it is necessary to refer to an organization
having an unfamiliar abbreviation, spell out the full form, followed by
the abbreviation in parentheses, at the first mention within each entry.
Use the abbreviated form thereafter.
Secret Police (NKVD); Communist Youth Internationsl (KIM); National Democratic Party (NDP)
Acronyms in Text At first mention spell out the term in full, preceded by "the," followed immediately by the acronym in caps in full parentheses. In subsequent use of the acronym delete "the" unless it is totally awkward: "Seeing defeat, NATO commanders decided"
Acronyms in Titles An acronym may not be used as, or in, an entry title. It may be used as a cross reference title to direct the reader to the appropriate entry. See section on "SEE" ENTRIES.
Non-English A foreign acronym may be used only after the full English translation is given and both the full foreign language term and acronym are given in parentheses immediately following the English. Use the foreign acronym in subsequent text. Do not create an English acronym. A master list of abbreviations and acronyms may be used to relate a foreign acronym to an existing and more identifiable English acronym.
Plurals Use a lowercase "s" without an apostrophe to form the plural of most acronyms. Use the apostrophe only if the acronym ends in "s."
Possessives To form the possessive of an acronym, use an apostrophe and a lowercase "s": " 's"
Method Alphabetization is word-by-word as set forth in Chicago (18.92). Note that a hyphenated compound
is treated as one word.
Numerals Numerals are alphabetized as if spelled out.
Parenthetical Ma- Ignore material in parentheses when alphabetizing. Do not eliminate it.
Person, Place, or AIP does not subscribe to the Chicago rule of indexing in the order of person, place, and thing
Thing when these share the same name.
Personal Names See Chicago 18.10218.122 except that names beginning with "Mac" come before those beginning
Place Names See Chicago 18.12318.125.
For treatment of amplified or related references see "SEE ALSO" ENTRIES section.
BIBLIOGRAPHIES TO ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES
Abbreviations for The following abbreviations should be used for the place of publication for Russian sourced material:
Russian Cities K. Kiev Pb. or SPb. St. Petersburg L. Leningrad
Pg. Petrograd M. Moscow
Abbreviations for There are no abbreviations for US cities.
Abbreviations for If the name of a state is required to identify properly a US city, use the old style abbreviation for the
US States state, not the postal zip code.
Authors and Editors List authors and editors by first name, middle initial, and last name. Do not list last name first. Cite the
author of an encyclopedia entry listed in the bibliography.
Biblical References A biblical reference must contain sufficient information for the reader to local the same source the author has cited. In addition to the version of the bible, there must be some readily understandable presentation of the book, chapter, verse, psalm, etc.identified as such
Capitalization in Capitalize every important word in English titles. Capitalize only the first word of titles in Russian, Titles except for proper names. For non-English titles follow the rules for the original language.
|4 BIBLIOGRAPHIES TO ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES|
Contents, Impor- Entry bibliographies are almost as important as the entry in (1) lending authority to the entry and (2)
tance, and Purpose guiding the reader to further information.
including both primary and secondary sources and, where appropriate,
"D.C." Do not include "D.C." if the place
is Washington, D.C.
Places of Publcation according to Webster's when available.
Format See page 5.
graphies bibliography is applicable to the first entry. The use of "See Below" or "See the Following (Entry)" is
Page Numbers Use all numbers for inclusive pages, in arabic figures.
Do not use "p." or "pp." when giving page numbers. (This does not apply to the text.)
Ph.D. Dissertations Cite Ph.D. dissertations as: "Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1975." Enclose in parentheses and always
spell "University" in full.
Publication Place/Date Place the city and date (year) in parentheses,
separated by a comma, e.g.(New York, 1929).
wont to do) the reference in the bibliography shall be for just onegenerally the firstwhere the main
university press office is located.
No parentheses is used for dates when citing weekly or daily publications (an exception to this rule
if the information is in a sentence in a bibliography, parens may be used).
Placement of Biblio- See section ENTRYSAMPLE FORMAT.
Publisher Information Omit the publisher except for AIP publications
a period. If it is basically a list, use semi-colons and end with a period. Example, comma: For other informed coverage of the topic and diverse opinions read Adam Aardvard, Wandering in North America (New York, 1986), 5590, John Jones, The Great Treasure of Our Southwest, 5 (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), 109113, and William Woods, Hidden Places in the Open (Los Angeles, 1984), 397 403. Example, semi-colons: Adam Aardvard, Wandering in North America (New York, 1986), 5590; John Jones, The Great Treasure of Our Southwest, 5 (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), 109113; William Woods, Hidden Places in the Open (Los Angeles, 1984), 397403.
Periods, not colons, are used to separate parts of compound titles of
books, journals, and newspaper
Reprints Cite original work, place and date. Do not list reprints.
(From Russkii biograficheskii slovar'); (Adapted from)
If original has no bibliography: FromZhurnal Moskovskoi, 9, 1964,6166, with bibliography added;
If original's bibliography is supplemented. From Evreiskaia entsiklopediia
with additional bibliography.
|BIBLIOGRAPHIES TO ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIESFORMAT 5|
Always a Comma
A Comma Only if
Almost Always a
|Always a Comma After Parens if Page No(s) Given||
Use Semi-colon if
More References, a Period After the Last
BIBLIOGRAPHY EXAMPLES (apply to all AIP works)
Book Avetik Isahakian, Hishatakaran (Memoirs) (Yerevan, 1977). Parentheses for translation of titles.
Harry C. Kariher, Who's Who in Hockey (New Rochelle, N.Y., 1973), 1718.
Henry Steel Commager, Documents of American History, 9th ed., (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973).
Henry Steel Commager, Documents of American History, 9th ed., 2 vols. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973).
Meletius M. Solovey, The Byzantine Divine Liturgy, trans. by Demetrius E. Wysochansky (Washington, 1970).
I.P. Eremin and D.S. Likhachev, eds., Khudozhestvennaia proza kievskoi Rusi XIXIII vekov (M., 1957),
D.R. Jones, "The Scotch of Choice" in Audry Sue Snickers, Looking at You (Snively, Tenn., 1996), 42-49.
Court Case Smiley v. Holm, 285 U.S. 355 (1932).
Dates in Titles C. Kelley, A History of Writing, 19101920. Use comma before dates in all book, article, etc. titles.
Encyclopedia Jerry Jaye Wright, "Barlow," Biographical Dictionary of American Sports. Basketball and Other Indoor Sports,
ed. by David L. Porter (Westport, Conn., 1989), 1415.
M.F. Zirin, "Vera Inber," Encyclopedia of Jazz, Vol. 1 (New York, 1993), 56-57.
Forewords, Iu. Barabash, "An Uninterrupted Advance." Introduction to The Shore of Love by Edward B. Rice (M., 1980), 5
Introductions 10. Period precedes a capital letter. (I)
David R. Jones, foreword to Poems by Merry D. Day (Frankfurt a. M., 1964).
Journal "Thomas R.R. Cobb and the 'Better Terms' Argument," The Georgia Historical Quarterly, 60 (Spring, 1976),
Peter A. Brannon, "John Coffee in Alabama, 1814," Arrow Points, 19 (July 1929), 6772.
E.J. Harden, "The Murder of Griboedov. New Materials," Birmingham Slavonic Monographs, No. 6 (1979);
L. Grossman, "Osnavatel' novoi kritiki," Russkaia mysl', Vol. 11, No. 2 (1914), 118.
H.H. Howorth, "The Avars," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21 (1889), 721810.
Edwin B. Sayles, "The Cochise Cultural Sequence in Southeastern Arizona," Anthropological Papers of the
University of Arizona, No. 42 (Tucson, Ariz., 1983).
Multiple Volumes (See page 25.)
Newspaper K. Simonov, "Sud'ba khudozhnika," Pravda, 4 August 1963. Page numbers not used in newspapers.
Periodical Alfred Wright, "Sportsman of the Year. Terry Baker," Sports Illustrated, 7 January 1963, 1621.
Sammuel J. Smith, "Graphic Originals," Illustrated Monthly, November 1976, 16. Page numbers used in
BIBLIOGRAPHY EXAMPLES (continued)
PPh.D. diss. Albert G. Applin II, "From Muscular Christianity to the Marketplace. The History of Men's and Boy's Basketball
in the United States, 18911957" (Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts, 1982).
Regulation Code of Federal Regulations, TItle 30, Chapter 7, Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining Reclama-
tion and Enforcement (Washington, 1981).
Titles in Other Titles in other languages are listed after the reference. E.g.In Azeri: Eserli, 2 vols. (Baku, 1958).
Languages In English: Leyla and Mejnun (London, 1970).
Unknown Date When the date of publication is unknown or not available
use n.d. E.g. (Boston, n.d.).
Unknown Place When the place of publication is unknown or not available use n.p. E.g. (n.p., 1953).
"Volume" Use "Vol." (cap. "V") only if necessary for clarity to identify a specific volume in a series.
Preference is to omit the abbreviated term and use the arabic numeral only. Use "vol." (lowercase "v")
when indicating the number of volumes in the series. When citing "volumes" always use arabic
numerals regardless of the actual title.
Gregorian Use the Gregorian calendar for 1918 dates and after when writing about Russia.
Julian Use the Julian calendar for dates before 1918 when writing about Russia.
Use of Calendars See section on DATES for use of Gregorian and Julian dates.
Basic Guidance Follow Chicago's preference of down (lowercase) style (Chapter 7). In general avoid nonessential
Consistency in the style of capitalization is important because it is
one of the easiest errors in editing
In text: "book two," "volume two," "second edition"
are all lowercase.
(Chi. 6.58): angst, leitmotif, gestalt, but Rahmennovelle.
In Cross References See CROSS REFERENCES section.
In Text The following basic rules and examples should help in avoiding inconsistencies.
Capitalize Do Not Capitalize
Civil, military, religious and professional If a title is used in apposition to a name
titles and titles of nobility immediately (the emperor Napoleon [that is, the
preceding a personal name. (President emperor who was Napoleon]
Washington, General Eisenhower) German general Rommel)
The title following a personal name if The title following a personal name in the
in formal usage. text (George Washington, president of the
(Gentlemen, the President of the United States)
A title used in place of a name in direct A title used in the text that does not
address precede or follow a person's name
(all secure, Captain, ready to sail) (the colonel gave the order)
Academic degrees and honors that General reference to academic degrees
follow a personal name. (doctorate, doctor's, bachelor's,
(John L. Jones, M.D. master of art)
Paul A. Tim, Doctor of Law)
Names of racial, linguistic, tribal, Designations based only on color, size,
religious or other groupings (Bushmen, or local usage.
Pygmy, Aryan, American Indian) (bushmen, pygmy, white, red man)
Political divisions of the worlda Political divisions when they precede
country, state, city, etc. that follow a name a name or stand alone
and are accepted as part of the name. (empire under Charlemagne, city of New
(Holy Roman Empire, New York City, York, the province)
Province of Quebec)
Generic terms used as a part of a name Generic terms used in a plural following
and a generic term that precedes more than more than one name or when it is used
one name (Bering Strait, Great Barrier Reef, descriptively or alone (the Blackwater and
Hudson River, Lakes Superior and Huron, Styx rivers, the Saginaw River Valley, the
Mounts Baldy and Everest) valley of the Snake River, the Mexican
coast, the Texas prairie)
Terms such as street, drive, bridge, church, Terms that stand alone or that are used
hotel, etc. when they are part of a formal collectively after two or more names
or official name. (the Golden Gate and Oakland bridges, the
(Golden Gate Bridge, Lincoln Park, Empire park, the Aetna and Times buildings, the
State Building, St. John's Church) church)
Lists Editors should build capitalization lists into their computers so they can use spellchecking functions to
check consistency of capitalization quickly.
Movements, Styles, Nouns and adjectives designating philosophical,
literary, musical, and artistic movements, styles, and
usually lowercased unless, in certain contexts, capitalization is needed
to distinguish the name of a
Capitalization Party. Do not use "Party" or "party." This avoids all confusion about Party/party capping. In documents retain the caps as given in FBIS or other sources used in AIP books.
Quick Reference to There are numerous capitalization problems not addressed above. The following, referenced to
Capitalization Chicago, should speed look ups.
Cultural Movements and Styles (7.66)Doric, pop art
Events (Chi. 7.65)Fall of Rome, Prohibition, gold rush, western movement
Foreign Names (7.87.14)
Foreign Terms in Names (7.42)Rio Grande (not Rio Grande River since "Rio" means "River")
Governmental and Judicial Bodies (7.477.53)Soviet government, Provisional government
Institutions and Companies (7.57)
Military Terms (7.937.97)
Parts of the World (7.34)North, North Atlantic, northern Russia, North Russia, Western powers, eastern front
Periods (7.607.64)Dark Ages, victorian era, baroque period
Political and Economic Organizations and Alliances (7.547.56)Republican party, Socialist party
Popular Names (7.35)the Channel, Deep South, South Seas
Quick Reference to
Religious Names and Terms (7.747.92)
Author Signature Author signature lines, contributors' page, and releases require the full name for authors (first, middle
Lines initial, last). They follow the entry on the next line. Use all lines. Type flush right on the next line, in bold and italics. Type multiple contributor names on one line, separated by "and."
Contributors' Page The list of contributors contained in each volume having one will give the names and institutional or other affiliations of all persons who have written, edited or translated material included in the volume, in bold and italics. Contributors will be identified with a first name, middle initial, and last name, all in roman, on one line. The affiliation is in italics and the city and state in roman with normal punctuation, on the next line.
The names of the authors of translated materials will appear in the appropriate
entry, not in this list.
ate to the language in question.
Purpose A Courtesy Line is used to acknowledge assistance from an association, individual, institution, or
group. It is a literary "thank you."
For treatment of cross references see "SEE" ENTRIES section.
Abbreviation of The year alone is abbreviated only in informal texts. This is not an informal text.
A.D. The designation A.D. is assumed in all AIP texts and titles. If it must be used it precedes the year:
"thirty years later in A.D. 21"; "99 B.C.A.D. 18"
assumed in the absence of any other indicator.
"eighteenth-century literature," but "in the eighteenth
Circa Use "c." with a space following, not "about:"
Decades Use 1870s, not 1870's; avoid "seventies."
Gregorian Calendar When writing about Russia use the Gregorian calendar for 1917 dates and after.
In Bibliographies See section on BIBLIOGRAPHIES TO ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES.
In Entry Headings Almost all entries require dates in the entry
headings and the majority of the dates required are "from-
Do not use both old (Julian) and new (Gregorian) dates in entry headings. Avoid the problem and use
punctuation. The date of the day alone is spelled out: twenty-third,
not 23rd. The month alone is
Show both old and new dates if the subject applies to Russia and the dates are prior to 1917.
ENTRYSAMPLE FORMAT 9
Julian Calendar When writing about Russia use Julian calendar dates prior to 1917. Be sure to show both old and
Dates new dates.
Month and Year The month and year are written in that sequence, without punctuation: March 1943.
Non-Existent Dates If a date does not exist, no date of death
for a living person, the non-existent date is identified with a
Old and New Dates If the subject applies to Russia and the dates are prior to 1917 show both the old and new dates: 30
May (11 June) 1864.
"Nineteen seventy-six was our bicentennial year."
SAMPLE FORMAT (1991 ). The identification line follows the
title and states the significance of the
The text follows. It is written in a scholarly style.
Remember that the reader may have very little knowledge of the English
language and that his
Other considerations are presented throughout this guide, particularly in the section on WRITING
Bibliography: At least five up-to-date references are required for this
Abbreviations There are to be no abbreviations in an entry title. The following is an example of the wrong way:
BARREL FUTURITIES OF AMERICA (BFA) (1983 ). The initials, or acronym, should be placed in
the text immediately following the first use of the full title in the
the correct title for the entry, as follows:
Alternate Non-Eng- Do not use alternate foreign words or terms
for titles in the entry title, not even in parentheses. These
Alternate Spelling If there is an alternate spelling to the title use it as a cross reference to the correct title:
Alternate Spelling Do not place the alternate spelling of a word
in the title on the title line. It should be in the text that
Ambiguous An entry title should be clear and concise. The following is an example of an ambiguous title:
BASEBALL FOR WOMEN (ALL-AMERICAN GIRLS' PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL LEAGUE)
Born Date Do not use a "born" only date with a title. A date range is required for articles about people.
Blind Entry A blind entry is the same as a cross reference, used
to direct the reader to the proper entry.
exception to the requirement for dates.]
Court Cases COLEGROVE v. GREEN, 328 U.S. 549 (1946).
|10 ENTRY TITLES|
Cross References BASEBALL, LITTLE LEAGUE. See LITTLE LEAGUE BASEBALL
DateAn Era If the century is the only date available express it as (5th century).
Date Not Occurred (1935 ) [End date left open, person still living.]
Date Unknown (?1626)
Date Unknown (1941 ?)
Title following the title, which is in bold. The dates are not
in bold, and are followed by a period.
Dates Within the On rare occasions it is necessary to place dates
within the title. An example of this would be an event
ACRE, SIEGE OF (1190).
ACRE, SIEGE OF (1291).
Note that the dates in parentheses are in bold so that they are considered within the title.
Distinguishing when When a leading title word will lead to confusion because of frequent repetition in succeeding titles a
Common Words distinction must be made, even though awkward:
COBB, FORT, OKLAHOMA [This form is preferred to several successive
entries that all begin with
[Note that the title is all roman even though this is the title of a
Holidays CHRISTMAS (25 December). [Note that this is an exception to the requirement for and portrayal of a
Informal Names BARLOW, THOMAS BRYAN "CAVE MAN" (18961983). "Babe" Barlow was one of the early stars
in the game of [Note that the nickname is in quotation marks and that
a second nickname appears
Institutions ALL-RUSSIAN MUSLIM LEAGUE. Turkish: Ittifaq al-Muslimin.
Military Equipment AA-2 (dates). NATO: Atoll. Soviet anti-ballistic missile.
Use the designator from the country of origin as the title. Use the NATO or other designator in the
identification line only and not as part of the entry title. Thereafter use the original designator from the
country of origin. This applies to US and non-US alike.
Monastic Names ANTONY BULATOVICH (18701919). Secular name
Alexander Ksaverievich Bulatovich.
text immediately after the title and identification line.
Reign Entry ALEXANDER I (17701825, ruled 18011825).
Specific Dates Specific dates, i.e. day/month/year are not used with entry titles. The exception is if the entry deals
with a specific day, such as a holiday, that always occurs on the same date.
There are no footnotes to text in encyclopedias and annuals, except SAFRA at present. Should an exception occur (God forbid!), elevate numbers in text but place on same line as note with a period and space where the notes are listed and placed.
General Non-English words and terms that are not in common use are not to be used.
Translation Translation of foreign words and terms is prefered to transliteration.
Untranslated Untranslated non-English words are used only for technical or other terms that have achieved
acceptance in English usage, such as "soviet."
Use of Keep the use of foreign words and terms to an absolute minimum. Use English with the foreign term
in parentheses and English thereafter in the text. When a foreign word
is shown in parentheses after
word is not italicized when in the parentheses and that "sing."
and "pl." are shown. For example: at
Adverbs Ending in Adverbs ending in "-ly" combined with a participle or adjective are always left open: highly developed;
"-ly" barely living.
Adverbs Other Adverbs ending in other than "-ly," when combined with a participle or adjective are usually hyphen-
Than "-ly" ated: long-lived; much-loved.
Guide for for line justification.
Cardinal Numbers When a cardinal number is combined with a unit
of measure, hyphenate the compound if it precedes
Changed Meanings Hyphenate a word if closing it would change its
meaning: re-creation; un-ionized.
Words at-home; stick-in-the-mud.
Compound Forms Hyphenate compounds in which the second element is a capitalized word or a numeral: anti-Semitic;
"Cross" Compounds Any temporary adjectival "cross-"
compound can be hyphenated: cross-referenced.
Foreign Phrases Foreign phrases used as adjectives are not hyphenated unless hyphenated in the original language:
grand prix; a priori; but lassez-faire.
contains a hyphen: one-half, two-thirds; three sixty-fourths.
word rather than two, e.g.: highborn.
|12 Identification Lines|
"Low-" Compounds "Low-" adjectival compounds are hyphenated with a few exceptions given in the dictionary as one
word rather than two, e.g.: lowborn.
Noun + Gerund Temporary compounds formed with a noun and a gerund are spelled as separate words: problem
Temporary solving; bird watching. Permanent compounds (bookkeeping,
dressmaking) are spelled as one word
Noun + Noun Com- Hyphenate compounds consisting of different and
equally important functions: author-critic; city-state;
anti co inter micro non pro sub ultra
extra macro mini post re supra under
Second Element Hyphenate compounds in which the second element consists of more than one word: non-English-
Compounds speaking people; pre-Civil War society. Note that, as in the second example, if the second element
consists of two or more unhyphenated words, they remain unhyphenated in the newly formed
"-wide" Compounds Compounds formed with "-wide" are generally not hyphenated unless cumbersome: worldwide;
research and expounded the potential of sorghum as a source of sugar.
Examplea Place BALMORAL PARK (1926 ). Formerly Lincoln Fields, a racetrack for thoroughbred horses in Crete,
ganization of Baptist sectarians.
cance by giving the Who, What, Why, When, Where of the entry.
Placement The Identification Line follows immediately after the
Entry Title of the article.
ILLUSTRATIONS, TABLES, FIGURES, GRAPHICS, maps
Advance Approval Tables can be sent to the publisher in advance of the manuscript for approval and formatting.
Column Heads Column heads are roman. Capitalize every important word. Keep column heads parallel across the page.
Column Subheads Subheads are italic.
Dimensions Maximum for illustrations smaller than full page: 3 x 3 1/2 (7.5 x 8 cm). Maximum for full-page: 4 1/2 x
7 in. (11.5 x 18 cm). Number illustrations, figures, and graphics sequentially within the entry.
Footnotes Table footnotes will be used only if absolutely necessary. Number footnotes consecutively using ara-
/. At base of table use "1." "3.", skip two spaces,
begin with a cap, normal punctuation. Start each foot-
General Illustrations may be provided by either the author or the editor. Black-and-white drawings and photo- graphs, diagrams, charts and maps only. They must be very high quality, camera-ready, and free of copyright restrictions. Include title, attribution and date.
Maps, Illustrations Must be submitted exactly as they will appear in books, i.e. "camera-ready copy." Each must have a descriptive caption. Each must indicate its place in the text. Place each in its position in the MS.
Numbering Number illustrations, tables, figures, and graphs consecutively in each category within each entry.
Permissions Must accompany each copyrighted item. Obtained by the author.
Placement Center tables and title on page. Do not use lines (rules).
Paste or staple where the item should appear. If insufficient space, place at top margin of next page
and mark where it should appear.
Whenever possible tables and figures will be set on one page. If breaking is necessary continued
lines will be: "continued" set flush left at bottom of page;
"TABLE X (continued)" set flush right at top
AIP may move graphics if necessary to get them on one page.
Quality Line drawing must be black and white with all lettering complete, clear, high quality. Photos black and white only, high contrast, very clear and bright. Color not accepted.
Vertical Spacing Place title on next line, just as text. Numbers
or column heads go on the next line. Lines of numbers
numbers end. Do not single space.
Wording Be consistent with wording in tables.
For Emphasis The use of italics for emphasis is prohibited.
For Foreign Terms Foreign words contained in parentheses are not to be placed in italics. If a foreign term is used (which should be rarely) it should be in italics. Excluded from this rule are terms, particularly French and Latin, that are in common use; they should not be in italics. Perestroika and glasnost are examples.
In Text In the text italics are used for book titles and names of ships only. This is a major exception to the rules in Chicago.
The Russian Law, The Primary Chronicle, etc. are documents not books, hence not italicized.
Punctuation With Punctuation following italics in the text should be italic, except for brackets and parentheses.
Typing Use underlining to indicate italics.
Within Parentheses No italics appear within parentheses in the text.
Entries In Keep all entries within a given list in parallel construction.
In Text For numbered lists in text use: (1), (2), (3)
Special Requirements If deeper subnumbering than has been shown is required, use Chicago 8.75. Avoid this situation if
Use of Use a numbered list only when the sequence is significant.
Vertical Lists For numbered vertical lists offset from the text
use the following system.
Bold Print To indicate bold print with a typewriter use double underlining. E.g. John P. Jones would print John P. Jones
Dashes In manuscript type dashes as two hyphens with no space before or after. Keep usage to a minimum.
Hyphenation If preparing manuscript on a computer do not use optional hyphens . They disappear in conversion from one computer program to another.
Italics Use a single underline with a typewriter to indicate italics. E.g. Webster's Dictionary would print Webster's Dictionary.
If your software shows bold and italics formatting on screen and your printer prints bolds and italics, please format appropriately and disregard underlining instructions above as they are meant for MSS produced on a typewriter.
Line Justification Do not hyphenate for justification in your manuscript submission. Do not hyphenate any word at the
end of a line or page.
Page Numbering Each page must be numbered sequentially in top right cornerentire MS, not by entries or articles, etc.
Specific Instructions Instructions applicable to specific topics
are presented throughout the Style Sheet in appropriate
In the Text Spell out the words kilometers, meters, liters, feet,
miles, pounds, etc. in the text. This rule does not
Original Language The unit of measure in the language of origin may be added at the author's discretion to satisfy
foreign readership. If so, it follows the metric equivalents in the same
parentheses and is separated
Punctuation An abbreviated international (metric) unit of measure
is not punctuated. English or other units of
before stopping." Note that there is a space between the number
and the unit of measure when the
Standard All measurements should be given in standard American
units with their metric equivalents added in
Accent Marks Include accent marks on all habitually used French words: a lá; passé; emigré.
Acronyms See section on ACRONYMS.
German-loaned German-loaned words (nouns) that have a secure place in the English language should be lower
case: angst, leitmotif, gestalt, but Rahmennovelle.
Not Commonly Used Non-English words not in common use are not to be used.
Titles of Publica- The titles of non-English publications, including
literary works, periodicals, and source materials are
roman alphabets, and the date of first publication. The transliterated title and date of publication are in
parentheses and without italics. E.g. An Old Liberal (Staryi liberal,
1886) The translation is used thereafter unless the title is widely known
in the original language. Note that the original title in
After Monarchs Use roman numerals after the names of monarchs: Elizabeth II; John XXIII
Approximate Num- Approximate figures in the hundreds, thousands,
millions, or billions should be spelled out.
Thousands should be used only with even thousands. A number such as 2,500 is written as twenty-
five hundred. For numbers such as these the preference is for the use
of numerals. They must be written out if they appear at the beginning of
Beginning a Sen- Any number that would ordinarily be written in figures that appears at the beginning of a sentence
tence should be spelled, e.g. "Ten men and a strong boy are required."
Commas With Use commas between groups of three digits, counting from the right. 2,312; 58,998; 4,216,300.
Date Ranges In giving date ranges use all of the numbers in both
the "from" and "to" dates. 19101976
Highway Numbers Highways are designated by arabic numerals: U.S. Route 101; Florida 87.
Inclusive Numbers When stating inclusive numbers give all numbers in both the "from" and the "to" number. This applies
to page and date ranges and to titles, text, and bibliographic entries. (Note that this is a major
exception to Chicago.)
Latitude and Longi- Latitude/Longitude are shown as: "Latitude
42° 39´ Longitude 73° 49´W´´
Miscellaneous For abbreviations of second and third use "2nd"
and "3rd," not "2d" or "3d." This applies
to both text
Numbers with Ab- If an abbreviation or a symbol is used for a unit of measure, the quantity should always be expressed
breviations by a figure: 3 mi., 50 lbs. Space between the figure
and the abbreviation.
hundred or less.
Eighteenth Dynasty Fifth District First Corps
102nd Congress 103rd Precinct 324th Air Wing
Page Ranges In giving page ranges use all of the numbers in both the "from" and "to" pages.
Percent The word percent is used in place of the symbol "%."
Percentages Percentages are set in figures in humanistic copy: 25 percent.
Roman numerals Use lower-case numerals when referring to page numbers in front matter of a publication.
Same Category Numbers applicable to the same category should be treated alike throughout a paragraph. Do not use
Numbers figures for some and spell out others. "There are 25 graduate students in the philosophy department,
56 in the classics department, and 117 in the romance languages department, making a total of 198
students in the three departments." Use numerals in such sequences
as above even when under 99.
four-digit year numbers (five or more use commas), and scientific copy are exceptions to this general
Street Numbers Numbered streets are written if one hundred or
less: Fourth Street, 115th Street.
information should be presented in the same manner (format) for topics in the same category. Thus,
entries dealing with aircraft, personalities, institutions, and so forth should have the same perfor-
mance information, physical description, biographical data, etc. in the
pressions of Duration months' wait."
Brackets Use only for editorial remarks inserted into quoted material. Rewrite to avoid whenever possible. If
inserting brackets, add "Ed.".
Commas after Don't put a comma after an adverb of time that starts a sentence such as "then" or "now."
ing literature, art, and music. Keller produced twenty-eight home runs
and 108 RBIs, and Joseph Gordon hit"
Ellipses Use ... for ellipses (3 periods, no spaces between periods).
Use space around an ... ellipsis when
letter(s) within a word. Complete sentences followed by an ellipsis should retain ending punctuation
followed by a space and three dots, i.e. four dots altogether, the last
being the period.
In Bibliography See section on BIBLIOGRAPHIES TO ENCYCLOPEDIA
In Entry Titles See section on ENTRY TITLES.
Metric and English See section on MEASUREMENTS.
Missing Periods Check for periods missing at the ends of sentences and for terminal periods mistyped as commas.
Parentheses Use parentheses in the text only if absolutely necessary.
In general do not place a parenthetical
See also Same Category Numbers.
Quotation Marks In the text, quotation marks are used around words
discussed as words: The term "proletariat."
tal Letters the text and bibliography.
Titles of Books and Use periods, not colons or commas, to separate parts of compound titles. For consistency apply this
Articles rule even when the actual title uses a colon.
Extracted Material Extracted material, e.g., a document, is treated
the same as text, with quotes added.
quotes will not be used.
Source A quote must have a source and that source must be cited.
used in place of the subhead "Bibliography:" in entries containing the subhead "Works:". (This
exception primarily applies to MERSL.)
"SEE ALSO" ENTRIES 17
acronym in this and a large number of similar instances is formed from the initial letters of the trans-
literated Russian version: TsGALI.
Former Soviet Republics Use old spelling for era before new republics formed. Thereafter use the English form adopted by the
In Text "See also" is placed within the text to direct the reader to a fuller treatment of a topic that the article treats briefly or to another entry that is related to the topic of the article. Type as "See also," entries in all caps. Do not place in parentheses. Follow with a period.
Subhead "See also" can be used as a separate subhead of an article to direct the reader to other entries
related to the topic of the article. If used as a subhead it should be placed after the main text, any
other subhead, and just before the bibliography. Multiple references should be in the alphabetic order
of the titles as they appear in the encyclopedia. Type as "See also."
No capital A, no colon, regular text (no italic), multiple items separated
by semicolons if a list, by commas if a sentence.
ExampleAcronym AAA (AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ACT). See AGRICULTUREPOLICIES, 19321980.
ExampleAlternate AACHEN. See AIX LA CHAPELLE. (Note period after
the referenced title.)
In Text Use "see" to guide readers to relevant information found in an entry with a different title. Also use
"see" to indicate alternative spellings, names, titles, translations
or transliterations of non-English
Source and Use Contributors are encouraged to suggest such instructions
and the editor will insert cross-references
See section on IDENTIFICATION LINES.
Alternate Spelling The alternate spelling of a word in the title should be in the text immediately following the title line. It
should not be inserted into the title and it should not be on the title line.
American Use American, not British spelling. When in doubt consult Webster's and Chicago.
Plurals of Acronyms Use a lowercase "s" without an apostrophe
to form the plural of most acronyms. Use the apostrophe
Plurals of Proper Use an "s" or an "es" (without an apostrophe) to form the plural of a proper name: the Joneses; the
Names Smiths; the Golunovs; the Kostenkos; the Katkovs.
Acronym or Ab- "s."
Possessives of Sin- Possessives of singular proper nouns ending
in "s" should be formed using " 's": Dickens's novel.
References: (Only used when "Works" is used.)
Works: (Only used when "References" is used.)
Standard Subheads Standard subheads are written in italics, the first letter of each word is capitalized, they are indented
Misc. from the left margin by one pica, and they are followed by a colon.
Text Subheads Text subheads are used for logical subdivisions of a particular article. They are specific to that article.
Text Subheads An entry about a group of people could be subdivided
Entry About a
Group of People Demography.
Bibliography: (Note: this is a Standard Subhead,)
Text Subheads An entry about a geographic location could be subdivided as follows:
Example of an
Entry About a
Commerce, Employment, and Industry.
Media and Entertainment.
Churches and Religions.
Bibliography: (Note: this is a Standard Subhead.)
Text Subheads Text subheads are written in roman (same type as the title of the entry), the first letter of principal
Misc words is capitalized, they are flush left, and are followed by a period and typed in bold. Do not punctuate a text subhead if it is used as a column head, unless an abbreviation is being used.
Use Subheads are used to organize an entry and to help the reader.
Review Annual (SAFRA), USSR Facts and Figures Annual (UFFA), and Chinese Facts and Figures
Percent The word percent is used in place of the symbol "%."
Military Do not use the twenty-four hour (military) system of expressing time.
O'Clock The use of "o'clock" is acceptable only if there is absolutely no doubt as to whether "a.m." or "p.m." is meant.
Never use "o'clock" with "a.m.," "p.m," or figures.
Standard Time is shown by numerals and the appropriate a.m. or
p.m. designation. Note the use of lowercase
Capitalization of See section on CAPITALIZATION.
In the Bibliography See section on BIBLIOGRAPHIES TO ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES.
Non-English Lan- In the text the title of a foreign language book or article is first given in English. It is followed by the
guage Books, transliterated or original language title in parentheses with the date. E.g. An Old Liberal (Staryi liberal,
Periodicals, and 1886).
In Bibliographies In the bibliographies use "ia," "ie," and "e" at the beginning of and within a word; i.e. strict LC system except ligatures. Soft signs are retained in the bibliography.
In Text In the text at the beginning of words use modified LC
system: "ya," "yu," and "ye." "Ye"
is "ie" when preceded by a soft sign.
System Used Otherwise use the Library of Congress transliteration system within words except in text drop all ligatures and omit hard and soft signs (except that a soft sign preceding the "e" is rendered as "i").
See section on MEASUREMENTS.
Placement The "Works" subdivision of an entry is placed immediately after the text and preceding "See," "See
Also," and "References" subdivisions. The subhead would appear in an entry as follows:
ENTRY TITLE (date). Identification line.
First paragraph of text, followed by second, and so on.
See Also: If used.
References: Title for subsection used only with "Works" and follows the rules given for the
Rules for See section on SUBHEADS.
the subject of the entry. For example, in an entry about Shakespeare the Works section would include
Hamlet, MacBeth, Othello, etc.
Animals When writing about animals and reference is made to the animal do not use "he," "she," or "it." It is against AIP policy to use such terminology. Avoid the problem and write around it.
Dating Material Avoid dependency on the date of publication of the article. Expressions such as "the current
chairman" are only valid when written and are meaningless ten years later.
Statistical data must be current. Data extracted from references that were published in the 1960s and
1970s is probably out of date.
|20 WRITING STYLE|
check the date of the source of the information. If the reference is not current the "open" may be
Use "Born 12 October 1577" not "on 12 October 1577."
Language Because AIP encyclopedias are consulted extensively by
readers throughout the world, use a simple,
address that are confined to popular, oral, fashionable, or advocacy usage. Traditional language is
required for a scholarly work such as an encyclopedia. Note, in particular,
that the language of
Military Equipment In the text, when writing about military equipment
(or similar items) they must be identifed at first
exceptional situation where the NATO term is used, it is written without
punctuation, i.e. quotation
Offensive Com- Avoid language that could be construed as offensive
to groups or individuals, domestic and foreign.
his American counterpart," "to rainfall in Colorado" and
Precision in Writing Observe the distinction between "that" (restrictive) and "which" (nonrestrictive). Note, for example, the
difference in meaning in the following sentences:
Turn left at the third house, which has green shutters.
Rhetorical writing is not in the style of an encyclopedia.
Do not use the conditional phrasing such as "would constitute"
"With" at the beginning of a sentence is strictly taboo: "With the beginning of the war"
Avoid using the following words. They tend to create a casual attitude and an encyclopedia is formal
also furthermore ironically therefore thus
further however moreover though undoubtedly
following the title and identification line. They are not part of the entry title.
Note that nicknames and informal names are not subject to this rule.
Quotes A quote used in the text must have a source. No footnote.
Write in or put in parentheses or brackets.
tion language capacity.
Rewrite to avoid awkward and artificial forms.
Avoid use of "he/she" and the like in favor of the traditional "he."
FOR EDITORS OF ANNUALS SERIES 21
Reorganize longer entries and those that are complicated because they contain technical informa- tion, as necessary. Use subheads. For examples see section in subheads.
Encyclopedia entries concerning similar subject matter should be similarly organized. The same
information should be presented in the same manner for topics in the same category. For instance,
entries dealing with aircraft, personalities, institutions, and so forth should have the same perfor-
mance information, physical description, biographical data, etc, in the
Important personages and institutions mentioned in the text need dates.
Dates are also desirable for
Repetition Avoid repetition of the same words or phrases, particularly
in the same sentence or paragraph.
manuscript page), simple punctuation, and the simple past tense.
Avoid split infinitives, dashes, italics for emphasis, and parenthetical insertions.
Normally sentences should not contain more than one subordinate clause
and verb forms should be
Be sure that pronouns such as "she," "he," "it," "they," and "this" have clear antecedents.
Rewrite to avoid ambiguity. For example, the sentence "Many authors
seek in vain to impress their
to whom "they" is referring.
In the text delete "the" before the name of a ship unless it
is totally awkward: "Seeing defeat,
FOR EDITORS OF annuals SERIES
Date in Title Each entry title must have a date. Infrequent exceptions will be tolerated.
General AIP annuals are intended to be very similar in format and style.
Page Count Each volume is targeted at 400 pages, plus or minus 20 pages.
Selected Bibliography Is a list of additional sources of material that is related to the subject. Generally it is placed at the end of a chapter. Note that the term "selected" is not used in the Chicago meaning. AIP rules apply with regard to form, information required, and so on.
Sources Avoid use of FBIS and similar citations even though material may have been obtained from such. Note in the Preface that some material may be found in FBIS, or any other that was used. Cite original source of information. If entry is scanned in do not change the format of the information or citation. Let the scan-in stay as in the original. This lends authenticity to the information.
Text Leave original text, whether keyed in or scanned in, as it appears, Text generated by the editor must follow standard AIP style. Proof reading for the accuracy of the text keyed in is the responsibility of the editor.
FOR EDITORS OF DOCUMENTS SERIES
Acronyms, Abbreviations, Each volume must carry such a list.
Special Term Lists Do not delete items for each volume. Too much work. Just add new ones.
Chapter Organization Chapter numbers are arabic, in Contents printed to left of the text block, in book as "Chapter 2", centered.
|22 FOR EDITORS OF DOCUMENTS SERIES|
Each chapter consists of (1) title, (2) introduction, (3) documents preceded by a headnote.
Documents are not numbered in any way, in Contents or in text.
No editorial material is inserted between documents in a chapter except for a headnote.
All editorial material must appear only in (1) general introduction, (2) introductions to chapters, (3) headnotes, (4) footnotes.
Consistency List A CL is mandatory for all terms, capitalizations, translations, acronyms beginning with Vol. 1 and for all new items in all volumes. Includes word order. The purpose is obvious. Put these in your computer dictionary as you go, and check everything before sending MS to AIP.
Send printout and disk to AIP with each volume.
CLs for all document series and encyclopedias will be checked against each other to arrive at a general CL for AIP books.
Document Title Each document must have (1) a title, (2) author, (3) date. A source for each must be given in a headnote or at end of document.
For a document title no italics, quotes or bolds are used except for a book, which is italicized.
Place author on first line, title on second line, date on third line, centered. Exception is USSR Documents Annual which retains present format.
Author may be, e.g., "Pravda Editorial", "USSR Foreign Ministry", "Decree of USSR President".
Footnotes All footnotes are grouped at the end of volumes by chapter, each set numbered 1-50 etc. for each chapter, each set preceded by "Chapter 2" etc. typed flush left.
Elevate footnote numbers in text. Number the text of the actual notes on same line as the text of the note with a period (6.). Two spaces, note begins; i.e., numbers are left of the text block, not elevated.
Double space. Do not skip lines.
Use "Chapter 2, Note 6" format when referring to a note.
Format for Translator When a translator is listed the format is: article, etc., source (1 January 1992). Translated by J.L.
Sources are cited, wherever they appear, and with the same information, as per AIP Style Sheet above.
Cite all sources mentioned in introductions and headnotes in the same format each time for consistency and reader understanding, within and in each volume of the series.
Add these formats to your CL authors, short titles, etc.
Cite books and articles by author in intros and head and footnotes after full citation at first mention, documents by short title.
All citations in editorial materials must be identifiable easily when cited in any bibliography or sources cited section.
General AIP document series are designed to be very similar in format and style.
Long Quotes When used in editorial matter, treat as regular text with quote marks. Do not indent or skip lines.
Personal, Always cite first name, middle initial, last name at first mention in intros, headnotes, footnotes,
Institutional Names bibliography. Impossible in some cases, but rarely.
For institutions use formal name.
For Russian names, first two initials OK.
For Chinese and other names, give formal full name in that language.
Russian Language Drop all apostrophes for hard and soft signs in all editorial matter. Retain only for formal bibliographical citations.
Selected Bibliography Generally this would appear after a footnote or source citation and lists additional, related material. Note that the term "selected" is not used in the Chicago meaning. AIP rules apply with regard to form, information, and so on.
FOR EDITORS OF encyclopedias 23
Sources Avoid FBIS etc. references. Instead, note in Preface that "some items may be found in FBIS or CDSP" or some such general formulation. This saves space, labor, and avoids pointing to heavy reliance on such sources.
Cite original source of publication.
Sources are cited (1) at the end of a document or (2) in the headnote.
Style Italics for books and names of ships only in editorial materials. Journals, newspapers not italicized. Same applies in a footnote when a mention, not a formal bibliographical citation.
Acronyms such as FRUS are not italicized.
First paragraph of introductions and headnotes is typed flush left. Indent following paragraphs.
Document authors. Upper/lower case for all, except acronyms, including institutions.
Use consistent terms. Don't use, e.g., "USSR Presidential Decree" and "Decree of USSR President" interchangeably.
Use periods, not colons, in compound titles everywhere, including bibliographies.
Dash. Use a dash (--) not a hyphen (-) in all "Ed."s.
Ampersand. Do not use with multiple authors. Use commas.
Translator and other credits attached to a document. Spell out. Thus, "Translated by Roy P. Hess." preceded by a period and no parens, brackets or quotes.
Table of Contents Each volume must include a TC numbered according to MS page numbers.
TC must include and match exactly the title of each document in the text.
Indent second lines.
Double space. Use all lines.
Sequence is author, comma, title, period, date, no period. No parens or brackets. For descriptive material (see below) use date, period, descriptive words, no period.
Do not use dots across to page numbers.
Place page numbers in a column to right after end of the text block.
Any descriptive material attached to a document title appears in TC only, not on the document, and follows the date, no parens, quotes, brackets, 2-3 words only.
Documents are not numbered.
No italics, bolds or quotes, except book titles (italics).
Place chapter number to left of text block. Place chapter title on same line at left margin of text block. Use upper/lower letters.
Word Count Each volume must have the same number of pages ± 15-20 pages. Target is 400 pages per volume, or length of your first volume, trending to the target. This allows uniform spine and appearance.
Official documents are stressed. The targeted 400 pages requires approximately 283,400 words (which typeset at slightly more than 708 words per page in 8 point type). This equates to approximately 944 typescript pages with 25 typed lines per page in 10 point pitch (300 words per page). If illustrations are used, adjustment is necessary.
FOR EDITORS OF encyclopedias
General AIP encyclopedias are intended to be very similar in format and style. Each volume should have the same number of pages ± 34 pages. The target is 247 printed pages of text and 8 pages of front matter per volume.
Word Count The targeted 247 pages of text requires approximately 139,420 words of 562 words per printed page in 10 point type. This equates to approximately 464 typescript pages with 25 lines per page in 10 point pitch (300 words per page), absolutely no partial pages and no lines skipped.
If illustrations are used, adjustments are necessary.
The manuscripts of volumes must end with two or three short entries to allow for miscalculations. To be safe, always submit ten pages extra of short entries.
|24 STYLESHEET CHANGES|
Nov 1993 Bib Example
Additional examples added to Edited and Translated By section.
Newpaper citation example corrected.
Additional example added to Periodical citation to handle monthly periodicals.
P. 5 Unknown Date/Place of Publication subsections added to Bibliographies to Encyclopedia Entries section.
P. 12 Title of section changed to reflect addition of Maps/Illustrations instructions.
P. 13 New subsections, Maps/Illustrations, Permissions, Quality, and Page Numbering, added.
P. 17 Instructions added to "In Text" subsection of "See Also Entries" section.
Within Entries subsection added to "See Entries" section.
Instructions added to "In Text" subsection of "See Entries" section.
P. 20 Addresses and Zip Codes subection added to Writing Style section.
Animals subsection added to Writing Style section.
Names in Text subsection added to Writing Style section.
P. 22 For Editors of Annuals Series section added.
P. 22- For Editors of Documents Series section reordered into alphabetical
P. 23 Selected Bibliography subsection added to For Editors of Documents Series section.
Nov 1995 P. 4 Last line of "Punctuation" changed from "(Los Angeles, 1994, 397403" to "(Los Angeles, 1994), 397403."
Jan 1996 P. 1 Changed spelling from "Tltles of Books and Articles" to "Titles of Books and Articles."
Feb 1996 P. 18- Formatted the standard and text subheadings on pp. 18, 19 as they should
19 appear in a published encyclopedia.
July 1996 Cover Contents. Add Stylesheet Changes, 24, and Quick Reference Consistency List, 26.
P. 1 Abbreviations, Abbreviations with Numbers. Change period to comma, add "except when mm (millimeter) is used to denote size of gun, cannon, or artillery."
P. 4 Bibliographies to Encyclopedia Entries
Punctuation. "Example semi-colons: in list bibliography." changed to"Example, semi-colon:".
Missing commas and end parentheses added.
Bold type, except for "comma" and "semi-colon" deleted.
"N.Y." changed to "New York."
Reprints. This subsection should read "Cite original work. Do not list reprints."
P. 5 Page contents rearranged to read vertically.
Format. Line 2. ", pages" added at end of line.
Line 5. Delete [close up if no pages].
Lines 29. Semi-colons at end of all lines.
Line 10. Period at end of line.
Instructions incorporated in Examples section have been printed in bold type for increased visibility.
Book. Isahakian example added to show translation of title.
First Commager example, delete period after 9th ed.
STYLESHEET CHANGES 25
Second Commager added to show multiple volume variants.
Jones example added to show authorship of a selection within a book.
Dates in Titles. Subsection added with one example.
Encyclopedia. Zirin example added.
Forewords, Introductions. Subsection added with two examples.
Journal. Grossman example. Delete ("Vol." is optional. See line 6 above, preferred. See "Volume" next page.).
Sayles example. Arizona spelling corrected. "no." changed to "No.".
P. 9 Entry Titles, Acronyms. Deleted hyphen in "Agriculture Policies."
P. 11 Hyphenation, Cardinal Numbers. Change period to semi-colon, add "18- to 20-year olds."
Line Justification. Subsection moved to Manuscript Preparation, page 14.
P. 13 Italics, In Text. Line added. "The Russian Law, The Primary Chronicle, etc. are documents, not books, hence not italicized."
P. 14 Manuscript Preparation. Subsections added. "Dashes," "Hyphenation," and "Line Justification."
P. 15 Numbers. Subsections added. "Millimeters" and "Roman numerals."
Punctuation. Add subsection "Apostrophe in Expressions of Duration."
P. 16 Punctuation, Dashes. Add the following sentence. "Keep usage to a minimum."
P. 17 "See Also" Entries, In Text. Delete "Printed in small caps." In its place add "Type as 'See also,' entries in all caps."
Subhead. Change last period to a comma and add "no capital A, no colon, regular text (no italic), multiple items separated by semicolons if a list, by commas if a sentence."
"See" Entries. ExampleAcronym. Add period after 1980.
ExampleAlternate Names. Add period after CHAPELLE. Material in parentheses should read "Note period after the referenced title."
In Text. Delete "Printed in small caps." In its place add "Type as 'See,' entries in all caps."
Within Entries. Change "small" to "all." Add at the end, "Do not italicize."
P. 21 For Editors of Annuals Series, Sources. In last line change "is" to "in."
Text. Change "gnerated" to "generated."
P. 22 For Editors of Document Series, Selected Bibliography. Change "Nate" to "Note," and "Cicago" to "Chicago."
Style, Sixth sentence. Change comma after bibliographies to a period and delete rest of sentence.
Seventh sentence. Remove space between two hyphens (--).
Feb 1997 P. 5 Bibliography Examples. Add the following subhead between Journal and Newspaper.
Multiple Volumes François Auguste René, Viscount de Chateaubriand, Travels in America and Italy, 2 vols., Vol. 1 (London, 1828), 230-233.
Eugene F. Bliss, trans. and ed., Diary of David Zeisberger, A Moravian Missionary among the Indians of Ohio, 2 vols. (Cincinnati, 1885), 1:190, 334; 2:267.
Sept 1997 P. 13 Italics. In Text. First sentence should read, "In the text italics are used for book titles and names of ships only."
P. 21 Style. Sixth paragraph. Italicize the word Chesapeake.
P. 23 After "Italics for books," add the phrase "and names of ships."
|26 QUICK REFERENCE CONSISTENCY LIST|
QUICK REFERENCE CONSISTENCY LIST
CAPITALIZATION AND NO-CAPITALIZATION
AND FORMATS FOR QUICK REFERENCE
Army, the White, Red, Russian
Chronicle, Primary, etc.no ital
Civil War, the
Communist Party officials
Empire, the Russian
Factory, the Triangle
Five Year Planthe, first
Frankfurt a. M.
Herzennot Russ. Gertzen
Ibid. no ital,.
In Morning (Baku, 1953. Russian: Utrom)
In Morning (Sahel, Baku, 1953. Russian: Utrom)
Kratkaia literaturnaia entsiklopediia
partydo not cap
Partyuse Communist Party
Revolution, the, Bolshevik, etc.
River, the Volga
Röhrich, N.not Russ. Rerikh
Schlüsselbergnot Russ. Shlisselburg
Social Democratic Workers Party
socialist-realist flavor etc.
Struvenot Russ Shtruve
The Flood(Dashgryn. Russian: Utro)
White Sea Canalnot Russian
ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL PRESS · POB 1111 · Gulf Breeze · Florida · 32562
The main thing to realize about this Style Sheet is that Academic International Press has gone to the Chicago manual, 13th edition, with a few exceptions. This Style Sheet replaces various AIP style sheets.
The various AIP style sheets have been checked against Chicago and incorporated into this Style Sheet.
This Style Sheet is essentially a short guide to Chicago covering the problems most frequently encountered in AIP publications, especially the encyclopedias. In some cases, though, resort still must be made to Chicago.
The AIP exceptions are shown on page 1.
This Style Sheet will be used at AIP to edit all manuscripts.
If something appropriate to this "Short Chicago'' has been overlooked, please tell us.
"SEE ALSO" ENTRIES 17
"SEE" ENTRIES 17
SIGNATURE LINES 17
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT 17
TRANSLITERATION FROM RUSSIAN 19
WRITING STYLE 19
FOR EDITORS OF Annuals series 21
FOR EDITORS OF DOCUMENTS series 21
FOR EDITORS OF ENCYCLOPEDIAS 23
STYLESHEET CHANGES 24
QUICK REFERENCE CONSISTENCY LIST 26
AIP EXCEPTIONS 1
AMPLIFIED REFERENCES 3
ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRIES 3
Select Bibliographies use Chicago, 426
COURTESY LINES 8
CROSS REFERENCES 8
ENTRYSAMPLE FORMAT 9
ENTRY TITLES 9
FOREIGN WORDS/TERMS 11
IDENTIFICATION LINES 12
FIGURES, AND GRAPHICS 12
MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION 13