Academic International Press


CONSISTENCY LIST FOR

HISTORY OF RUSSIA FROM EARLIEST TIMES

By Sergei M. Soloviev

RANKS, OFFICIALS AND OCCUPATIONS

Roman numerals in parentheses denote position in Table of Ranks.

Consistency Lists

CHURCHES

GEOGRAPHICAL

INSTITUTIONS AND CHANCELLERIES

PERSONAL NAMES (A-H)

PERSONAL NAMES (I-P)

PERSONAL NAMES (R-Z)

RANKS

TABLE OF RANKS

TERMS

WEIGHTS, NUMBERS, & MEASURES

 

Back to S.M. Soloviev, "History of Russia From Earliest Times" (Soloviev)

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Rank, Volume, Time Period

abbess - igumen'ia 25 1680s

abbot (of hermitage) - stroitel' 37 1741-44

abbot - igumen, arkhimandrit 16 1613-34

abyz - mullah 21 17c

acting - nakaznoi 35 1730s

acting sergeant - vitse-serzhant 38 1745-48

actuary - aktuarri 45 1766-68

adjutant - pis'mennyi golova 21 17c

adjutant (of prince) - pod"ezdnoi 06 1389-1425

adjutant general - general-ad'iutant - office held by Catherine's favorite 48 1772-74

administrative officer - pravitel'stvennoe litso 13 1584-98

administrator - ekzekutor, upravitel' 35 1730s

administrative boyar - putnyi boiarin 06 1389-1425

admiral (II) 46 1768-70

admiralteets - admiralty secretary 26 18c

advisers - sovetnye liudi 24

advocate - advokat 18 16-17c

advokat - advocate 18 16-17c

agent - agent 18 16-17c

agent - iabednik (Vernadsky MRL), pristavnik 03 12-13c

agent - lazutchik 15 1606-10

agent - pristavnik 15 1606-10

aide - sedelnichii 04 13-14c

aktuarri - actuary 45 1766-68

alderman, councillor - ratmann (German) 14 1598-1606

alebardshchik - halberdier 14 1598-1606

"all his warriors" - vsia voi svoia 45 1766-68

amanat - hostage 45 1766-68

ambassador (resident) - rezident 37 1741-44

ambassador - posol 14 1598-1606

ambassador extraordinary - chrezvychainyi ministr 37 1741-44

ambassadors extraordinary - polnomochennye posly 12 17c

anchorite - pustynnik 06 1389-1425

apothecary - aptekar' 14 1598-1606

appanage prince - udel'nyi kniaz' 45 1766-68

aptekar' - apothecary 14 1598-1606

arbui chudskie - shamans 12 16c

archbishop - arkhiepiskop 16 1613-34

archbishop-primate - arkhiepiskop-primas 18 16-17c

archbishop's servant - arkhiereiskii keleinik 45 1766-68

archdeacon - arkhidiakon, protodiakon 15 1606-10

archduke - ertsgertsog 16 1613-34

archimandrite - arkhimandrit 16 1613-34

architect - arkhitektor 48 1772-74

archpriest - protopop 16 1613-34

ariane - Arians (Socinians) 18 16-17c

Arians (Socinians) - ariane 18 16-17c

arkhiater - surgeon general (Peter) 45 1766-68

arkhidiakon - archdeacon 15 1606-10

arkhiepiskop - archbishop 16 1613-34

arkhiepiskop-primas - archbishop-primate 18 16-17c

arkhierei - high priest, chief hierarch, bishop 21 17c

arkhiereiskie deti boiarskie - junior boyars attached to archbishops 45 1766-68

arkhiereiskie prikaznye liudi - officials attached to archbishop 14 1598-1606

arkhiereiskii keleinik - archbishop's servant 45 1766-68

arkhiereiskii keleinik - bishop's servant 45 1766-68

arkhimandrit - archimandrite, abbot 16 1613-34

arkhitektor - architect 48 1772-74

armed insurgent - uboitsa 45 1766-68

armeiskii kapitan - captain in the army 37 1741-44

armor-clad boyar - pantsyrnyi boiarin 12 16c

armorer - oruzheinichii 45 1766-68

armorer - oruzhnichii 13 1584-98

armorer - ruzhnik 16 1613-34

army menials - voiskovaia cheliad' 14 1606-10

artillery captain - ruzhnyi starosta 18 16-17c

artillery commander - golova pushkarskaia 25 1680s

artilleryman - ruzhnik, pushkar 15 1606-10

assassin - uboitsa 45 1766-68

assayer - znatets 16 1613-34

assessor - zasedatel' 25 1680s

assessor - (collegial) assessor 37 1741-44

assigned peasants - pripisnye krest'iane 48 1772-74

assistant apothecary - gezel 35 1730s

assistant chancellor - podkantsler (Pol.) 38 1745-48

assistant governor - tovarishch voevodskii 21 17c

ataman - cossack chieftain 18 17c

ataman (cossack) 20 17c

atamanishka - chieftain 21 17c

attendant - diadka 25 1680s

autocrat - samoderzhets 45 1766-68

auxiliary soldier - obrochnik 15 1606-10

auxiliary troops - posokha 45 1766-68

azovskii pasha - pasha of Azov 26 1690s

baba striapchaia - nurse 12 16c

bailliff - pristav(nik) 16 1613-34

bakalavr - university graduate 18 16-17c

barabanshchik - drummer 37 1741-44

barash - a royal tent/canopy keeper; an upholsterer 06 1389-1425

barge hauler - burlak 38 1745-48

baron 46 1768-70

baryshnik - jobber, middleman 13 1584-98

baskak - Tatar tax collector 04 13-14c

batozhnik - bearer of crown baton, cleared way for tsar 45 1766-68

bear trainer - medvedchik 45 1766-68

beaver trappers - bobrovniki 06 1389-1425

beekeeper - bortnik 45 1766-68

beggar - nishchenskii 21 17c

belets - layman, lay brother, novice 21 17c

beloe dukhovenstvo - white clergy (married) 24

belomestets - tax-exempt townsman 26 1690s

belye sviashchenniki - parish priests 16 1613-34

bergmeister - mining engineer, master 45 1766-68

bey - Tatar dignitary, noble 25 1680s

bey - Turkish commander 46 1768-70

bez mest - without order of precedence 16 1613-34

birich - crier 02 12c

bishop - arkhierei 21 17c

bishop (Catholic) - biskup 16 1613-34

bishop - episkop 16 1613-34

biskup - bishop (Catholic) 16 1613-34

"black" people or lower classes - chernye liudi 45 1766-68

blustitel' - locum tenens 21 17c

bliustitel' - overseer, supervisor, rector of Moscow Academy 45 1766-68

blizhnii boairin - privy boyar 14 1598-1606

blizhnii boiarin - privy councillor 26 1690s

blizhnii stol'nik - privy table attendant 25 1680s

blizhnye liudi - privy councillors. See tainyi sovetnik 48 1772-74

blizhnyi chelovek - privy councillor 16 1613-34

blizhnii boiarin - privy boyar 45 1766-68

blizhnii okolnichii - privy lord-in-waiting 45 1766-68

blizhnii voevoda - privy commander 13 1584-98

bloodwite collector - virnik 01 9-11c

blustitel' - locum tenens 21 17c

boarder - sosed 24

bobrovniki - beaver trappers 06 1389-1425

bobyl - cotter 12 16c

bodyguard - grid', grid'ba 01 9-11c

bodyguards - telokhraniteli 15 1606-10

bogomol'tsy - clergy 16 1613-34

bogomolets - pilgrim, also form of address 15 1606-10

boiar - boyar 45 1766-68

boiare putnye starodavnye i nekuplennye - boyars of ancient and unpurchased right 12 16c

boiarin - boyar 15 1606-10

boiarin koniushii - boyar (master) of the horse 24

boiarskie liudi - boyar men 21 17c

boiarskie liudi - boyars' bondslaves 26 1690s

boiarskii chelovek mladshii - boyar's lesser man 12 16c

boiarynia - boyarina 25 1680s

boiler maker - kotel'nik 24

boliare - variant of boiare (boyars) 06 1389-1425

bolichnaia bratiia - infirmarians 21 17c

bol'shie liudi - most eminent people 16 1613-34

bol'shogo polka dvorovyi voevoda - household commander of the great regiment 25 1680s

bol'shoi boiarin - great boyar, also known as vvedenyi (privy) boyar 06 1389-1425

bol'shoi voevoda - commander in chief of large military unit, army 45 1766-68

bombardir - bombardier 26 1690s

bonded laborer - rabotnik 21 17c

bondsman - kholop 15 1606-10

borovshchik - person who gathered provender for princes' horses 06 1389-1425

bortnik - beekeeper 45 1766-68

bound serf - odernovatyi 06 1389-1425

boy - parubok (W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

boyar and master of the horse - koniushii boiarin 14 1598-1606

boyar men - boiarskie liudi 21 17c

boyarina - boiarynia 25 1680s

brakovshchik - quality controller 37 1741-44

briber - posul'nik 06 1389-1425

brigadier - piatisotnyi 25 1680s

brigadir - brigadier (V) 37 1741-44

brigand - vor 14 1598-1606

broker - znakhar 12 16c

brother (monastic) - starets 15 1606-10

buccaneer - vor 21 17c

budnik - pitch maker 21 17c

bugler - surnach 14 1598-1606

bunchunzhyi - standard bearer 25 1680s

burggraf - burgrave (Holy Roman empire) 13 1584-98

burgher - meshchanin 14 1598-1606

burghers - meshchanstvo 18 16-17c

burgomaster - burgomistr 48 1772-74

burgomistr - burgomaster 48 1772-74

burgrave - posadnik (appointed by prince) 01 9-11c

burgrave (Holy Roman empire) - burggraf 13 1584-98

burlak - bargeman, barge hauler 26 1690s

burmistr - magistrate 26 1690s

burmistr - mayor (W. russ.). Use burgomaster 45 1766-68

butler (court rank) - striapchii, crown agent 14 1598-1606

cab driver - izvoshchik 16 1613-34

cadilesker - Turkish high Islamic office 48 1772-74

caesar (Byzantine court rank) - kezar 45 1766-68

"Caesar" (False Dmitry) - tsezar 14 1598-1606

caliph - turkish 48 1772-74

caller, warrant server 06 1389-1425

cannoneer - pushkar 24

canon (Pol.) - kanonik 13 1584-98

canonarch - kanonarkhist 17 1634-45

cantor - pevchii d'iak 21 17c

cantors (church) - d'iaki 45 1766-68

captain (cavalry) - rotmistr (IX) 15 1606-13

captain - golova, sotnik 15 1606-10

captain - sotskii 21 17c

captain in the army - armeiskii kapitan (IX) 37 1741-44

captain of a myriad, prince - temnyi kniaz' 06 1389-1425

captain of musketeers - sotnik streletskii 14 1598-1606

captain of the guards - kapitan gvardii (IX) 37 1741-44

cardinal 16 1613-34

carter - izvoshchik 16 1613-34

castellan - kashtelian (Polish-Lithuanian title) 14 1598-1606

castle constable - zamkovyi uriadnik 12 17c

catechist - tserkovnik 37 1741-44

catholicos - head of Armenian church 23 17c

cavalier guards - kavalergardov 48 1772-74

cavalrymen - reitarskie liudi 24

cell monk - keleinik 12 17c

cellarer - kelar' (monastic official) 14 1598-1606

cellarer (monastic official) - kelar' 16 1613-34

cellarman, wine steward - gvozdar 24

chamber servant - kamer-lakei 48 1772-74

chamberlain - postel'nik 06 1389-1425

chamberlain (acting, actual) - kamerger, kamer-iunker - gentleman of the chamber 48 1772-74

chambermaid - gornichnaia 37 1741-44

chancellery agent - posylshchik 35 1730s

chancellery official - prikashchik 14 1598-1606

chancellery officials - prikaznye liudi 15 1606-10

chancellery warden - prikaznoi pristav 25 1680s

chancellor - diak (of Poland, etc.; Laski, the Polish chancellor, Chancellor Laski) 45 1766-68

chancellor (Turkish) - reis-effendi 48 1772-74

chancellor - kantseliar, kantsler 14 1598-1606

chancellor - kantsler 15 1606-10

chaplain - kaplan 12 16c

chaplain - krestovyi d'iak 13 1584-98

chashnik - cupbearer (pushkarev) 14 1598-1606

chef, cook - povar 37 1741-44

cheliad' - household slaves 06 1389-1425

cheliadin - slave 06 1389-1425

chelo - head (of army, embassy) 21 17c

chern' - commoners 13 1584-98

chern' - rank-and-file (noun) 20 17c

chernets - monk 24

chernososhnye krest'iane - taxpaying crown peasants 07 15c

chernye liudi - "black" people or lower classes 45 1766-68

chernyi pop - hieromonk 21 17c

chevalier - kavaler' 16 1613-34

chiaus - Turkish envoy or messenger 13 1584-98

chief - nachal'nik 24

chief aga - kizlir-aga 35 1730s

chief hetman - getman velikii 45 1766-68

chief hetman - getman pol'nyi 14 1598-1606

chief hierarch - arkhierei 21 17c

chief justice - sud'ia general'nyi 25 1680s

chief lady-in-waiting - gofmeisterin (Pol.) 14 1598-1606

chief of gendarmes - ober-politseimeister 48 1772-74

chief of the commissary - general-krigs-komissar 48 1772-74

chief of the local police and judical district - gubnoy starosta 24

chief official - prikashchik (slobodskoi) 25 1680s

chief privy councillor - tainoi dumy dumets 13 1584-98

chief procurator (Holy Synod) - ober-prokuror 37 1741-44

chief procurator - ober-prokuror 48 1772-74

chieftain - atamanishka 21 17c

chieftain - vladelets 13 1584-98

chieftain (Asiatic tribes) - kniazets 24

chiliarch - tysiatskii 04 13-14c

chinovnik - official, civil servant, state functionary 12 16c

chiny prodvornye - court functionaries 14 1598-1606

chosen men - vybornye liudi 16 1613-34

chrezvychainyi ministr - ambassador extraordinary 37 1741-44

chrezvychainyi poslannik - emissary extrordinary, extraordinary envoy 37 1741-44

Christ's fool - iurodivyi 24

church warden - tserkovnyi starosta 24

churchman, cleric - sviashchennyi sluzhitel' 35 1730s

citizens - gorozhane 18 16-17c

city medical officer - shtadt-fizikus 37 1741-44

civic officials - nachal'nye liudi 20 17c

clergy - bogomol'tsy 16 1613-34

clergy - dukhovenstvo 13 1584-98

clergyman - kliroshanin (Pushkarev) 14 1598-1606

cleric, churchman - sviashchennyi sluzhitel' 35 1730s

cleric - diachok 21 17c

cleric in minor orders - prichetnik 21 17c

clerk - kantserialist 38 1745-48

clerk - pod'iachii 15 1606-10

clerk - pisets 06 1389-1425

clerk who keeps minutes - protokolist 37 1741-44

clerks - prikaznye 35 1730s

client - derzhal'nik 21 17c

cloth merchant - sukonnik 16 1613-34

co-owner of property - polovinshchik 24

co-owner, member of cooperative land association - siabr 45 1766-68

cobbler - sapozhnik 18 16-17c

coiner - denezhnyi master 21 17c

collegiate assessor - kollezhskii assessor (civil service title, VIII) 48 1772-74

colonel - polkovnik 16 1613-34

commander - hetman 48 1772-74

commander - voevoda 15 1606-13

commander of half-company - piatidesiatnik 14 1598-1606

commander-in-chief - koshevoi (cossack) 25 1680s

commercial agents - promyshlenniki 26 1690s

commissar - komissar 48 1772-74

commissary - komissariat 48 1772-74

commissary/minister plenipotentiary (Sw.) - kommisar' i polnomochnyi ministr 37 1741-44

commissioners - komissary 15 1606-10

common traders - torgovye chernye liudi 13 1584-98

commoner - smerd 01 9-11c

commoners - chern' 13 1584-98

commoners, citizens at large - pospol'stvo 12 16c

communications officer - ofitser dlia rasporiazheniia pochtoiu 37 1741-44

communion bread (prosphora) baker - prosfirnia, proskuritsa, prosvira 12 16c

company clerk (Muscovy Company) - prikashchik 13 1584-98

company commander - sotnik 14 1598-1606

conciliar noble - dumnyi dvorianin 14 1598-1606

conciliar secretary - dumnyi d'iak 14 1598-1606

conference councillor (Swedish) - konferents-sovetnik 45 1766-68

confessor - dukhovnik 14 (17c)

confessor - ispovednik 18 16-17c

confessor - otets dukhovnyi 03 12-13c

conscripts - datochnye liudi 21 17c

consecrated estate - osviashchennyi chin 16 1613-34

constable - nedel'shchik 12 16c

contract servitors, servicemen - sluzhilye liudi 24

contractor - poriadchik 37 1741-44

controller-general (France) - general-kontroler 37 1741-44

cook, chef - povar 37 1741-44

cooper - kadashevets 21 17c

copyist - kopiist 48 1772-74

corporal - desiatnik 14 1598-1606

corporal - desiatskii 21 17c

corporal - kapral 37 1741-44

corrector - spravshchik 25 1680s

cossack captain - golova kazach'ii 14 1598-1606

cossack - kazak, kozak 16 1613-34

cossack pirate - vorovskii kazak 21 17c

cossacks, Putivl cossacks 11 16c

councillor (Ger.) - palatnik 14 1598-1606

councillor-at-legation - legatsion-rat 38 1745-48

councillor to the conference - sovetnik konferentsii 48 1772-74

councillors - dumnye/blizhnye liudi 15 1606-13

councillors - dumnye liudi 15 1606-13

count (papal) - graf 14 1598-1606

count palatine - pfal'tskii 16 1613-34

courier - gonets 15 1606-10

court assistant - zemskii tseloval'nik 24

court chaplains - sviashchenniki pridvornye 15 1606-10

court chef - kukhmistr (Polish rank) 46 1768-70

court councillor - nadvornyi sovetnik, kantsler (VII) 48 1772-74

court functionaries - chiny pridvornye 14 1598-1606

court people - dvoriane 03 12-13c

court retainers - dvorovye liudi 21 17c

court tailor (Poland) - forshneider 37 1741-44

court retainers 16 1613-34

courtier (dvorianin) 24

courtiers - dvoriane 06 1389-1425

Cracow, archbishop of 08 15c

craftswoman - masteritsa 24

crossroad priests - krestovye popy 48 1772-74

crown agent - striapchii 16 1613-34

crown agent (Pol.) - koronnyi poverennyi 25 1680s

crown chancellor - kantsler koronnyi 18 16-17c

crown clerk (prikazov pod'iachie) 14 1598-1606

crown councillors - tsarskii sinklit 15 1606-10

crown franchise holder - otkupshchik 38 1745-48

crown hetman (Pol.) - koronnyi getman 14 1598-1606

crown marshal (Pol.) - koronnyi marshalok 15 1606-10

crown officials - liudi prikaznye 35 1730s

crown prince - kalga (Crimean Tatar) 48 1772-74

crown secretary - d'iak 15 1606-13

crown prince - kronprints 38 1745-48

crown serf - serf belonging to tsar 23 17c

crown servitor - oprichnik 13 1584-98

crown table attendant - koronnyi stol'nik 13 1584-98

crown treasurer - podskarbii koronnii 25 1680s

crown treasurer of Lithuania - podskarbii litovskii 13 1589-98

cupbearer (princely household office) - chashnik 15 1606-10

cupbearer - tafeldekerskii pomoshchnik 38 1745-48

customs inspector, official 37 1741-44

customs chiefs - tamozhennye golovy 16 1613-34

customs official - tseloval'nik 13 1584-98

d'iachki - scribes 14 1598-1606

d'iak - crown secretary 15 1606-13

d'iak (ecclesiastical) - deacon 16 1613-34

d'iak dvortsovyi - court crown secretary 12 16c

d'iak palatnyi - palace crown secretary 12 16c

d'iak vvedennyi - privy secretary 06 1389-1425

dannyi pristav - bailiff extraordinary 12 16c

daruga - Tatar tax collector 06 1389-1425

datochnye liudi - auxiliaries 26 1690s

datochnye liudi - conscripts 21 17c

day laborers - obydenki 37 1741-44

d'iakon - deacon 26 1690s

deacon on bishop's staff - pridel'nyi diakon 24

dean (ecclesiastical) - starosta popovskii 12 16c

defaulter - izbyval'shchik 18 16-17c

defrocked priest 06 1389-1425

deistvitel'nyi kamerger - high chamberlain 37 1741-44

deistvitel'nyi statskii sovetnik - senior state councillor (IV) 45 1766-68

deistvitel'nyi tainyi sovetnik - senior privy councillor (II) 45 1766-68

delegate - poverennyi 15 1606-10

deliui -craftsmen performing services for prince 06 1389-1425

demenskii kupchina - damask merchant 12 16c

den'shchik - overseer 17 1634-45

denezhnye sborshchiki - revenue collectors 24

denezhnyi master - mint master, coiner 21 17c

deputat - deputy 48 1772-74

deputaty - deputies 16 1613-34

deputy - deputat 48 1772-74

deputy commander - voiskovoi tovarishch 25 1680s

deputy governor, commander - vtoroi voevoda 15 1606-10

deputy (Tatar) - kalga 16 1613-34

derzhal'nik - client 21 17c

derzhava zamkovyi - castle warden 12 16c

derzhavets - prefect (Pol.) 15 1606-10

derzhavtsa - holder of benefice, prefect (W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

desiatil'nik - tithe collector 12 16c

desiatinnik - tithe collector 12 16c

desiatnik - corporal (musketeers) 26 1690s

desiatnik - decurion 06 1389-1425

desiatskii - corporal 21 17c

desiatskii - tenman 12 16c

desiatskii sviashchennik - decade priest 12 16c

desnitskii - squad leader, police sergeant 24

"Despair" tsarevich - nechai-tsarevich 21 17c

deti boiarskie - junior boyars 16 1613-34

detonsured monk - strigol'nik 06 1389-1425

detskii - court agent 06 1389-1425

detskii - man-at-arms 12 16c

detskii - young servant 03 12-13c

diachok - cleric 21 17c

diachok - sexton, psalmist, reader 24

diadka - attendant 25 1680s

diadka - tutor 26 1690s

d'iak - chancellor (if affiliated with a chancellery); crown secretary if affiliated with office below chancellery) 24

d'iak vvedennyi - official state secretary 06 1389-1425

d'iakon - deacon 26 1690s

diaki (church) - cantors 45 1766-68

diaki masterskoi tsaritsynoi palaty - clerks of the tsaritsa's private workshop 24

dignitaries - znat' 24

dignitaries (ecclesiastical) - vlasti 21 17c

dignitary - sanovnik 13 1584-98

diplomat - rezident (Russ.) 25 1680s

director - nachal'nik, office 24

director general of mines - general-berg-direktor 35 18c

director of bishop's chancellery - prikaznoi 25 1680s

director of posts - iamskoi upravitel' 38 1745-48

director-in-chief - glavnyi komandir 37 1741-44

disgraced person - opal'nyi 06 1389-1425

dispatcher - rassylshchik 35 1730s

dissidents (Polish non-Catholics) - dissidenty 13 1584-98

dissidenty - dissidents (Polish non-Catholics) 13 1584-98

district chief, administrator - volostel' 04 13-14c

district commander - osoblivyi pristav 48 1772-74

district councillor - landrat 37 1741-44

district deputies (to Polish Sejm) - posly povetovye 13 1584-98

district supervisory priest - starosta popovskii 14 1598-1606

diuk - duke 46 1768-70

dobrye liudi - well-to-do people, respected citizens 26 1690s

doctor - meider 48 1772-74

doge - kniaz' venetsianskii 13 1584-98

dokhtur - foreign medical doctor 24

dol'nik - prosperous peasant families united with a poor household 07 15c

domestic servants and peasants - liudi i krest'iane 35 1730s

domestic servants - domochadtsy 16 1613-34

domochadtsy - domestic servants 16 1613-34

donor (to monastery) - vkladchik 17 1634-45

donoress (nun or laywoman living in convent at own expense) - vkladchitsa 35 1730s

doverennye liudi, verniki - proxies or plenipotentiaries 12 16c

dovodchik - bailiff 12 16c

dovodchik - court agent 06 1389-1425

dovodchik - false witness 06 1389-1425

dowager tsaritsa - tsaritsa-mat' 14 1598-1606

dozh - doge (Venice, Genoa) 26 1690S

dozorets - overseer 26 1690s

dozorshchik ruzh'em - weapons instructor 17 1634-45

drab - foot soldiers (W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

dragoman 26 1690s

dragoons - draguny 24

dragun - dragoon 38 1745-48

drayman - izvoshchik 16 1613-34

drummer - barabanshchik 37 1741-44

druzhinnik - retainer 01 9-11c

duke - herzog, gertsog 04 13-14c

duke of Milan 07 15c

dukhovenstvo - clergy 13 1584-98

dukhovnik - confessor, chaplain 14 1598-1606

dukhovnye dolzhnosti - ecclesiastical offices 15 1606-10

dumnye liudi - councillors 15 1606-13

dumnyi d'iak - conciliar secretary 14 1598-1606

dumnyi dvorianin - conciliar noble, state servitor 14 1598-1606

dumnyi postelnichii - conciliar gentleman of the bedchamber 25 1680s

dumnyi sovetnik - state councillor 26 1690s

dvoretskii - majordomo 14 1598-1606

dvoriane gorodovye - provincial servitors, town service gentry 14 1598-1606

dvoriane moskovskie - select moscow gentry 14 1598-1606

dvoriane vybornye - select provincial gentry 14 1598-1606

dvoriane - court people 03 12-13c

dvoriane - gentry, nobles 16 1613-34

dvorianin - servitor 25 1680s

dvorianstvo - service nobility 13 1584-98

dvornik - janitor 12 16c

dvorovye liudi - court retainers, servitors 16 1613-34

dvorovyi voevoda - household commander 14 1598-1606

dvorovyi chelovek - house servant/serf 26 1690s

dvorskii - court administrator 12 16c

dvorskii. Use official 04 13-14c

dwarf - karl, karlik 13 1584-98

earl (English) - graf 13 1584-98

ecclesiarch - ustavshchik 21 17c

ecclesiastical dignitaries - vlasti 24

ecclesiastical estate - tserkovnyi chin 15 1606-10

ecclesiastical offices - dukhovnye dolzhnosti 15 1606-10

ecclesiastical dignataries - tserkovnye prichetniki 16 1613-34

ecumenical patriarch - patriarkh vselenskii 13 1584-98

ego sviatost' - his holiness 18 16-17c

ego tsesarskoe velichestvo - his imperial highness 16 1613-34

ekklesiarkh (eklusiarkh) - sexton 37 1741-44

ekonom - steward 35 1730s

ekonom - oeconomus (monastic steward) 03 12-13c

ekonomicheskii krest'ianin - economic peasant 48 1772-74

ekspeditsiia - investigative office 48 1772-74

ekzarkh - exarch 25 1680s

ekzarkh patriarshii - patriarchal exarch 18 16-17c

ekzarshestvo - rank of exarch 18 16-17c

ekzekutor - administrator 35 1730s

elder (monastic) - starets 15 1606-10

elder - starosta, uriadnik (Lith.) 15 1606-10

elder - starosta 16 1613-34

elected chief of local administration - zemskii starosta 24

elected local sworn officials - tseloval'niki 24

elected musketeers - vybornye strel'tsy 24

elected representatives - vybornye liudi 25 18c

elected rural district officials - volostnye vybornye 24

elected rural district representatives (who sit in town hall) - volostnye aretchiki 24

elected representatives from the towns - vybornye liudi iz gorodov 16 1613-34

elector - kurfiurst 16 1613-34

emissary - poslannik 15 1606-10

emad-efendi - Turkish mufti 38 1745-48

eminent men - imenitye liudi 13 1584-98

emissary - prisyl'shchik 21 17c

emissary extraordinary - chrezvychainyi poslannik 37 1741-44

emperor ("caesar") - tsezar (False Dmitry) 14 1598-1606

emperor (Holy Roman) - tsezar (khristianskii) 15 1606-10

emperor - the emperor said; Emperor Paul; Holy Roman emperor 45 1766-68

empress - imperatritsa 16 1613-34

ensign - praporshchik (XIII) 48 1772-74

entrepreneur - okhotnik-kupets 38 1745-48

entrepreneurs - promyshlenniki 26 1690s

envoy - poslannik 15 1606-10

episkop - bishop 16 1613-34

episkop-sobstvennik - landowner-bishop 18 16-17c

erikhtes-veibel - sergeant-major 17 1634-45

ertsgertsog - archduke 16 1613-34

esaul - captain (cossack) (IX) 20 17c

esaulishka - second lieutenant (cossack) 21 17c

escort - pristav 20 17c

estate, social group (W. Russ.) - stan 45 1766-68

Evangelicals (Protestants) - evangeliki 18 16-17c

evangeliki - Evangelicals (Protestants) 18 16-17c

exarch - ekzarkh 25 1680s

exarch (rank of) - ekzarshestvo 18 16-17c

expert - znakhar 12 16c

ezdovoi serzhant - messenger sergeant 35 1730s

falconer - sokol'nik 14 1598-1606

farmers - zemskie liudi 12 16c

farming peasant - pakhotnyi krest'ian 48 1772-74

father superior - nastoiatel' 45 1766-68

favorite - liubimets 13 1584-98

favorite - vremenshchik 18 16-17c

fel'dmarshal - field marshal (I) 46 1768-70

fel'dtseikhmeister - artillery commander 26 1690s

female slave - raba, zhonka (W. Russ.) 15 1606-10

field colonel - polevoi polkovnik (cossack rank) 25 1680s

field marshal - Field Marshal Glinsky 45 1766-68

field commander - koshevoi ataman 20 17c

firetender - istopnik 24

firetender's wife - istopnichikha 24

first lieutenant - voiskovoi esaul 25 1680s

first major - prem'er-maior (VIII) 48 1772-74

first-guild merchant - pervostateinyi kupets 48 1772-74

fisherman - rybolov 45 1776-78

fiskal - government inspector, agent, auditor 45 1766-68

fiurer - wagoner 17 1634-45

fizikus - physician, medic 48 1772-74

fligel-adiutant - aide-de-camp 45 1766-68

foot soldiers (W. Russ.) - drab 45 1766-68

foot wanderers - peshie 24

foreign medical doctor - dokhtur 24

foreign minister (Turkish) - reis efendi 37 1741-44

former priest - raspop 45 1766-68

forshneider - court tailor (Poland) 37 1741-44

fortification builder - gorododelets 25 1680s

free alcoholic beverage seller - vol'nyi piteinyi promyshlennik 24

free district peasants (N. Russ.) - uezdnye liudi 45 1766-68

free homesteader - odnodvorets 35 1730s

free men (cossack outlaws) - vol'nitsa 21 17c

free servitors - slugi vol'nye 06 1389-1425

freelance private solicitor - khodok 37 1741-44

freemen - muzhi 25 1680s

frontier commander (Lithuanian) - strazhnik litovskii 45 1766-68

frontier officer - zasechnaia 25 1680s

fur tribute gatherer - sborshchik iasaka 14 1598-1606

furer - guide, scout 17 1634-45

gaiduki - haiduks 16 1613-34

gardener - sadovnik 06 1389-1425

garrison - osadnye liudi 20 17c

garrison soldier - zatinshchik 35 1730s

gate watch - vorotnoi storozh 24

gatekeeper - vorotnik 24

gendarme chief - general-politseimeister 48 1772-74

gendarme constable - politseimeister 48 1772-74

gendarme constable - politseiskii starosta 48 1772-74

gendarme general 48 1772-74

general (I­IV) 46 1768-70

general poruchik - lieutenant general (III) 46 1768-70

general secretary - general'nyi pisar' 25 1680s

general war commissariat 48 1772-74

general zemel podolskihk - general of the Podolian lands (Polish) 45 1766-68

general'nyi marshal - marshal general 46 1768-70

general-ad"iutant - adjutant general 48 1772-74

general-admiral - general admiral (I) 26 1690s

general-anshef - General-in-chief (II) 45 1766-68

general-berg-direktor - director general of mines 35 1730s

general-feldtseigmeister - quartermaster general (II) 45 1766-68

general-gubernator - governor general 35 1730s

general-in-chief - general-anshef (II) 45 1766-68

general-kontroler - controller-general (France) 37 1741-44

general-krigs-komissar - chief of the commissary 48 1772-74

general-kvartermeister - quartermaster general (II) 46 1768-70

general-leitenant - lieutenant general (III) 35 1730s

general-maior - major general (IV) 35 1730s

general-plenopotentsiar - plenipotentiary general 37 1741-44

general-politseimeister - gendarme general (Peter) 37 1741-44

general-prokuror - procurator general 45 1766-68

general-proviantmeister - commissary general 35 1730s

generalitet (tat) - military elite, those of the four highest ranks 45 1766-68

generalnyi pisar' - general secretary 25 1680s

generalnyi regimentar (Polish) - regiment general 45 1766-68

generalnyi revizor - inspector general 37 1741-44

gentleman of the bedchamber - postel'nichii 13 1584-98

gentleman of the bedchamber - spal'nik 24

gentleman of the chamber - kamerger, kamlerlakei 38 1745-48

gentry - szlachta (Polish); shliakhta (Russ.) 45 1766-68

gentry - dvoriane; ordre equestre (Polish) 48 1772-74

Gentry class (Lithuania) - zemiane 07 15c

gentry (Polish) - shliakhta (szlachta) 16 1613-34

gentry - dvoriane 16 1613-34

gerfalconer - krechetnik 14 1598-1606

geroldmeister - master of heraldry 35 1730s

gertsog (hertzog) - duke; -ana - duchess 45 1766-68

gertsog kurliandskii - duke of courland 26 1690s

getman - hetman (Hetman Ivan, etc.); army chief in Ukraine, Pol-Lith 45 1766-68

getman pol'nyi - chief hetman 14 1598-1606

getman velikii - chief hetman 45 1766-68

gezel - assistant apothecary 35 1730s

glavkomanduiushchii - commander-in-chief 46 1768-70

glavnyi komandir - director-in-chief 37 1741-44

"God's nobles" - Knights 04 13-14c

gofmarshal - marshal of the court 35 1730s

gofmeisterin (Pol.) - chief lady-in-waiting 14 1598-1606

golik - junior captain (cossack, dim. of golova) 20 17c

golodnik - rebel 06 1389-1425

golova - (district) head 26 1690s

golova - captain (cossack) 15 1606-10

golova kazach'ii - cossack captain 14 1598-1606

golova kruzhechnogo dvora - superintendant of crown taverns 21 17c

golova pushkarskii - artillery commander 25 1680s

golova sluzhnyi - service chief 12 16c

golova(y) - regimental commander(s) of musketeers or head/chief of other group (context); colonel (1650s) soldaty regiments 45 1766-68

golova, captain or head of a district; also a customs official 45 1766-68

golova, osadnoi - governor's assistant 24

golova, streletskii - colonel (of musketeers) 15 1606-13

golovshchik - subprecentor 17 1634-45

gonets - herald, courier 15 1606-10

gonets - herald, messenger, courier 16 1613-34

gornechnik - potter 24

gornichnaia - chambermaid 37 1741-44

gorodchik - town garrison commander 12 16c

gorodichii - commander/commandant of city/town garrison 24

gorodnichie - municipal administrators 12 16c

gorododelets - fortification builder 25 1680s

gorodovoi prikashchik - city garrison commander later called "komendant", town commissioner 24

gorodovoi prikashchik - town prefect 13 1584-98

gorodovoi prikazchik - town chief or fort agent 45 1766-68

gorodovoi voevoda - town governor 37 1741-44

gorodovye - provincial military servitors 12 16c

gorodovye kazaki - (town) registered cossacks 26 1690s

gorodovye kozaki - town cossacks (part of garrison) 24

gorodskie - town dwellers 06 1389-1425

gorozhane - urban residents, citizens 13 1584-98

gospoda prezidenty - lords presidents 48 1772-74

gospodar - hospodar (Wallachia) 38 1745-48

gospodar - sovereign (Lithuanian term) 11 16c

gospodar - sovereign (West Russian term) 45 1766-68

gospodarik - lordling 18 16-17c

gospodin - lord (as Lord Dmitry) 45 1766-68

gost' (v)vedennyi - resettled merchant 12 16c

gost' - leading merchant 14 1598-1606

gosti - leading merchants 16 1613-34

gosudar' - sovereign 15 1606-10

gosudarstvennye chiny - estates (Sweden) 10 16c

gosudarstvennye dolzhnosti - crown offices 15 1606-10

gosudarstvennyi deputat - state, crown deputy 45 1766-68

gosudarstvennyi krest'ianin - state peasant 48 1772-74

governess - mavna 24

government agent, inspector, auditor - fiskal 45 1766-68

government officials - liudi prikaznye 35 1730s

governor - voevoda 15 1606-13

governor (of a province) - gubernator 38 1745-48

governor (Swedish) - pravitel' 16 1613-34

governor's assistant - osadnaia golova 25 1680s

governor, civil and military 48 1772-74

gradonachal'nik - town governor 46 1768-70

gradskaia golova - mayor - municipal official 48 1772-74

graf - (papal) count 14 1598-1606

graf - count 46 1768-70

graf - earl (English) 13 1584-98

grammarian - grammatik 13 1584-98

grammatik - grammarian 13 1584-98

granary officer - zhitichnaia golova 25 1680s

granatchik - grenadier 26 1690s

grand chancellor - velikii kantsler 48 1772-74

grand duke (post-Petrine) - velikii kniaz' 38 1745-48

grand hetman - velikii getman 48 1772-74

grand marshal (Pol.) - taken from N. Davies' God's Playground History of Poland

grand master (Livonian Order) 45 1766-68

grand master of the horse - obershtaleister 38 1745-48

grand mufti - velikii mufti 38 1745-48

grand prince - velikii kniaz' 45 1766-68

grand privy boyar - velikii blizhnii boiarin 13 1584-98

grand royal hetman - koronnyi getman 38 1745-48

grand vizier - velikii vizir 48 1772-74

great boyar - bol'shoi boiarin 06 1389-1425

great men - muzhi 06 1389-1425

great mogul - velikii mogul 38 1745-48

great sovereign - velikii gosudar' 45 1766-68

great sovereign lady - velikaia gosudarynia 16 1613-34

grid', grid'ba - bodyguard 01 9-11c

grid', grid'ba - junior boyars 06 1389-1425

groom - koniukh 15 1606-10

guard - vorotnoi storozh 24

guard posted in administrative office - prikaznoi storozh 24

guardian - kormilets 03 12-13c

guardian - oberegatel' 25 1680s

guardian of the great royal seal and the state's great ambassadorial affairs - tsarstvennye sho'shie pechati i gosudar-stvennykh velikikh posol'skikh del oberegatel' 25 1680s

guards major - maior gvardii 37 1741-44

guards, the 48 1772-74

gubernator - governor of Pskov, etc. 45 1766-68

gubernator-general - governor general 46 1768-70

gubernskii sekretar' - regional secretary (XI) 37 1741-44

gubnoi starosta - local magistrate 25 1680s

gubnoy starosta - local police chief/magistrate (of the district) 24

gubnoy starosta, head of the guba, elder 45 1766-68

gubnye tseloval'niki - local officials 14 1598-1606

gubnyi tselovalnik - local police officer/ magistrate, assistant criminal judge 24

guide - provozhatyi 13 1584-98

guild representative - vernaia golova 21 17c

guildsmen 48 1772-74

guliashchie liudi - free and unattached men 45 1766-68

gultiai - wanderers, vagabonds 45 1766-68

gunner - pushkar 24

gusar - hussar 15 1606-10

gvozdar - cellarman, wine steward 24

gynaecologist - znatok v zhenskikh bolezniakh 13 1584-98

haiduk - gaiduk 16 1613-34

halberdier - alebardshchik 14 1598-1606

harquebusier 45 1766-68

hatter - tulnik 06 1389-1425

hawker - iastrebnik 14 1598-1606

head (of army, embassy) - chelo 21 17c

hearthman - ognishchanin 01 9-11c

heckler - krikun 21 17c

helmsman - kormnik, kormchii 06 1389-1425

helmsman - shturman 48 1772-74

herald - gonets 15 1606-13

hereditary serf (W. Russ.) - otchich 45 1766-68

herzog - duke 04 13-14c

hetman - commander-in-chief of the army (in Poland and Ukraine) 45 1766-68

hetman - getman 15 1606-13

hierodeacon - ierodiakon 24

hieromonk - chernyi pop 21 17c

hieromonk - ieromonakh 25 1680s

high ambassadors - velikie posly 16 1613-34

high boyars - velikaia boiarinia 24

high chamberlain - deistvitel'nyi kamerger 37 1741-44

high president - ober-prezident 37 1741-44

high priest - arkhierei 21 17c

high procurator - ober-prokuror 38 1745-48

high swordbearer - velikii mechnik (royal household office

created by False Dmitry) 15 1606-10

hired - vol'nonaemnyi 48 1772-74

hired hand - iaryzhka 21 17c

hired man - skupshchik 13 1584-98

hireling - naimit 01 9-11c

his holiness - ego sviatost' 18 16-17c

his imperial highness - ego tsesarskoe velichestvo 16 1613-34

holder of a knightly order, cavalier - kavaler 48 1772-74

holder of benefice - derzhavtsa 45 1766-68

holder, keeper - soderzhatel' 45 1766-68

holy fool - iurodivyi 24

holy orders - san dukhovnyi 15 1606-10

Holy Roman emperor - imperator nemetskii, germanskii 16 1613-34

Holy Roman emperor - rimskii tsesar 16 1613-34

Holy Roman emperor - tsezar, tsezar khristianskii 14 1598-1606

horse guards - konnogvardeiskie (imperial guards regiment) 48 1772-74

horse guards captain - konnogvardiia 48 1772-74

horseman - snuznik 06 1389-1425

hospodar (Moldavia-Wallachia) - voevoda 13 1584-98

hostage - amanat 45 1766-68

hostage - zalozhnik 13 1584-98

house slaves/serfs - zadvornye liudi/krest'iane 26 1690s

household commander - dvorovyi voevoda 14 1598-1606

household commander of great regiment - bol'shogo polka dvorovyi voevoda 25 1680s

household serfs - liudi dvorovye 35 1730s

household servants - pridvornye liudi 15 1606-10

hundredman - sotnik, sotskii 15 1606-13

hunter, huntsman - lovchii 06 1389-1425

hunter of predatory animals - pardusnik 06 1389-1425

huntsmen - psari 06 1389-1425

hussar - gusar 15 1606-10

iabednik - agent (Vernadsky MRL) 03 11-13c

iabednik - court herald 12 16c

iamshchik - postal agent 38 1745-48

iamskie okhotniki - postal couriers 15 1606-10

iamskii okhotnik - post-rider 12 16c

iamskii prikashchik - postal agent 26 1690s

iamskoi upravitel' 38 1745-48

ianychar - janissary 20 17c

iaryzhka - hired hand 21 17c

iaryzhki - vagrants 24

iasachnye liudi - tribute (tax-) paying natives 26 1690s

iasel'nichii - master of the horse 24

iasel'nichii - stablemaster 21 17c

iastrebnik - hawker 14 1598-1606

iasyr - captives or prisoners of war 45 1766-68

iazyk - informant 13 1584-98

iconographer - ikonopisets 13 1584-98

ierarkh - prelate 06 1389-1425

ierodiakon - hierodeacon 24

ieromonakh - hieromonk 25 1680s

igumen - abbot 16 1613-34

igumen'ia - abbess 25 1680s

ikonopisets - iconographer 13 1584-98

imenitye liudi - eminent men 13 1584-98

imperator - emperor 46 1768-70

imperator nemetskii - Holy Roman emperor 16 1613-34

imperatorskii - imperial 16 1613-34

imperatritsa - empress 16 1613-34

imperial - tsezarskii 14 1598-1606

imperial highness - tsezarskoe velichestvo 14 1598-1606

imperial - imperatorskii 16 1613-34

indentured servant - zakladen 06 1389-1425

indentured worker - zakup 45 1766-68

indigenous boyar - korennoi boiarin 06 1389-1425

infirmarians - bolichnaia bratiia 21 17c

informant - iazyk 13 1584-98

informant - skhodnik 15 1606-10

informer - perevetnik 06 1389-1425

informer - svedentsyi 12 16c

inhabitant - obyvatel' 37 1741-44

inspector - nadsmotrishchik, vyimshchik 37 1741-44

internuntius - internuntsio 48 1772-74

internuntsii - papal internuncio 45 1766-68

internuntsio - internuntius 48 1772-74

interpreter - tolmach 25 1680s

investigative office - ekspeditsiia 48 1772-74

investigator - vyimshchik 37 1741-44

investigator - sledovatel' 13 1584-98

irregulars - volnitsy 04 13-14c

iskusnye liudi - skilled men 12 16c

ispolovnik - tenant farmer, sharecropper 06 1389-1425

ispovednik - confessor 18 16-17c

istopnichikha - firetender's wife 24

istopnik - firetender 24

itinerants - guliashchie liudi, peshie 35 1730s

iurodivyi - Christ's fool, holy fool 24

iz gorodov - provincial 16 1613-34

izbylye liudi - unregistered persons 18 16-17c

izbyval'shchik - defaulter 18 16-17c

izgoy, plural izgoi - dispossessed prince 02 11-12c

izliublennyi starosta - elected magistrate 12 16c

izmailovsky guards regiment 48 1772-74

izornik - sharecropper 45 1766-68

izvoshchik - cab driver, carter, drayman, teamster 16 1613-34

janissary - ianychar 20 17c

jarl (Swedish hereditary rank). Use earl 04 13-14c

jester - shut 15 1606-10

jobber - baryshnik 13 1584-98

Josephan - osiflian 13 1584-98

Judaizer - zhidovlianin 13 1584-98

judge (Zaporozhian Host) - voiskovyi sud'ia 20 17c

judge - sud'ia 14 1598-1606

judge, Islamic chief - kadiesker 48 1772-74

Judicial councillor - nadvornyi sovetnik 48 1772-74

Junior boyar - syn boiarsky 24

junior boyars attached to archbishop - arkhiereiskie deti boiarskie 45 1766-68

junior boyars attached to archbishops - arkhiereiskie deti boiarskie 14 1598-1606

junior boyars attached to the patriarch (patriarshie deti boiarskie) 14 1598-1606

junior boyars - deti boiarskie 16 1613-34

jurist (Islamic) - mufti 48 1772-74

juror - lavnik (W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

jurors - lavniki (cossack) 20 17c

kabal'nye kholopy - slaves under contract 45 1766-68

kadashevets - cooper 21 17c

kadi - a Muslim judge 08 15c

kadiesker - Islamic chief judge 48 1772-74

kalga (Crimean Tatar) - crown prince 48 1772-74

kalga - deputy (Tatar) 16 1613-34

kamer-iungera - lady of the bedchamber 38 1745-48

kalga-sultan 26 1690s

kamer-lakei - chamber servant 48 1772-74

kamerdin - valet 38 1745-48

kamerlakei - gentleman of the bedchamber 38 1745-48

kamerger, kameriunker - gentleman of the chamber, chamberlain 48 1772-74

kanonarkhist - canonarch 17 1634-45

kanonik - canon (Pol.) 13 1584-98

kantenarmus - quartermaster sergeant 38 1745-48

kantseliar - chancellor 14 1598-1606

kantseliarist - chancellery official, clerk (office) 35 1730s

kantsler - chancellor (I) 35 1730s

kantsler koronnyi - crown chancellor 18 16-17c

kantsliarnyi sovetnik - chancellery councillor 46 1768-70

kapitan - captain (IX) 37 1741-44

kapitan gvardii - captain of the guards (IX) 37 1741-44

kapitan nad ruzh'em - fusileer captain, arms instructor 17 1634-45

kapitan-brigadir - brigadier captain (V) 46 1768-70

kapitan-poruchik - lieutenant-captain (IX) 48 1772-74

kapitul ordenskii - head of Livonian Order 26 1690s

kaplan - chaplain 12 16c

kapral - corporal 37 1741-44

kaptenarmus - supply/quartermaster officer 24

karachei - Tatar dignitary, noble 25 1680s

karl, karlik - dwarf 13 1584-98

kashtelian - castellan (Polish-Lithuanian title) 14 1598-1606

kassir - treasurer 45 1766-68

kastelian - castellan 45 1766-68

katorzhnik - prisoner sentenced to hard labor, galley slave 46 1768-70

kaval'er - cavalier 35 1730s

kaval'er - holder of a knightly order, cavalier 48 1772-74

kavalergardov - cavalier guards 48 1772-74

kazak, kozak - cossack 16 1613-34

kaznachei - treasurer/household treasurer 24 17c

kaznacheia - wardrobe mistress 26 1690s

kaznacheiskii keleinik - treasurer's servant(deputy)-context 24

keeper of the seal - pechatnik 14 1598-1606

keeper, holder - soderzhatel' 45 1766-68

kegaia - vizier's deputy (kehaya) 35 1730s

kelar' - cellarer (monastic official) 14 1606-10

keleinik - cell monk 12 17c

kezar - caesar (Byzantine court rank) 45 1766-68

khalupnik - market farmer 07 15c

khan 16 1613-34

khizhan - landless peasant (Georgia) 07 15c

khodok - messenger (on foot), freelance private solicitor 37 1741-44

kholop - slave, bondsman (female, raba) 15 1606-10

kholop polnyi i dokladnyi - full and confirmed slave 12 16c

khorugv (Pol.) - ensign 26 1690s

khorunzhii - standard bearer (Pol.) 15 1606-10

khorunzhy - standard-bearer; commander of the khrugov' 45 1766-68

khoruzhii koronnyi - royal standard bearer (Polish) 45 1766-68

khramovye rytsary - Knights Templar 04 13-14c

kindern - class of German merchants 06 1389-1425

king - korol' 16 1613-34

kinglet - tsarik 18 16-17c

kizlir-aga - chief aga 35 1730s

klir - clergy 06 1389-1425

kliroshanin - clergyman (Pushkarev) 14 1598-1606

kliuchar' - sacristan 24

kliuchnik - steward/keeper of the keys, bailiff (context) 24

kmet - peasant (Pol., W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

kniagina - princess 45 1766-68

kniaz' - prince 45 1766-68

kniaz'-biskup - prince-bishop 18 16-17c

kniaz' venetsianskii - doge 13 1584-98

kniazets - chieftain (Asiatic tribes) 24

kniazhata - lesser princes 45 1766-68

kniazheskaia milost' - princely grace 16 1613-34

knight of Malta - mal'tiiskii kavaler' 16 1613-34

Knights - "God's nobles" 04 13-14c

knights of the Sword - Livonian Knights 04 13-14c

Knights Templar - khramovye rytsary 04 13-14c

kokiuskii patriarch -patriarch of Kokui 26 1690s

kollezhskii assessor - collegiate assessor (VIII) 48 1772-74

kollezhskii sovetnik - collegiate councillor (VI) 35 1730s

komandor - commander, Teutonic Order 04 13-14c

komissar - commissar, commisioner 35 1730s

komissar distriknyi - district commissioner 45 1766-68

komissar, zemskii - provincial commissioner 37 1741-44

kommisar' i polnomochnyi ministr - commissary and minister plenipotentiary (Swedish) 37 1741-44

komissary korolevskie - royal commissioners 18 16-17c

komnatnaia devka - serving maid 26 1690s

komnatnyi - gentleman-in-waiting. See also postel'nichii 24

komnatnyi boiarin - boyar of the throne room 24

komnatnyi boiarin - palace chamber boyar 21 17c

komnatnyi okol'nichii - lord-in-waiting of the throne room 24

komnatnyi stol'nik - table attendant of throne room 24

konferents-sovetnik - conference councillor (Swedish) 45 1766-68

koniukh - groom 15 1606-10

koniushii - master of the horse 15 1606-10

koniushii boiarin - boyar and master of the horse 14 1598-1606

koniushii boiarin - boyar and master of the horse 14 1598-1606

konnogvardeiskie - horse guards - imperial guards regiment 48 1772-74

konnogvardiia - captain of horse guards 48 1772-74

konsul - consul 46 1768-70

kontr-admiral - rear admiral (IV) 46 1768-70

konuishii - stable master (master of the horse), equerry 45 1766-68

kopeishchik - lancer 26 1690s

kopiist - copyist 48 1772-74

korennoi boiarin - indigenous boyar 06 1389-1425

kormil'shchik - prince's tutor 06 1389-1425

kormilets - guardian 03 12-13c

kormlenshchik - official in the kormlenie system of administration 45 1766-68

kormnik - helmsman, leader of fishing guild, skipper 06 1389-1425

kormilitsa - wet nurse 13 1584-98

kornet - cornet (XIII) 46 1768-70

korol' - king 16 1613-34

koroleva - queen 38 1745-48

korolevich - prince (foreign) 16 1613-34

korolevna - royal princess 45 1766-68

koronnyi getman - crown hetman (Pol.) 14 1598-1606

koronnyi kantsler - crown chancellor 48 1772-74

koronnyi marshalok - crown marshal (Pol.) 15 1606-10

koronnyi poverennyi - crown agent (Pol.) 25 1680s

koronnyi oboznyi - royal quartermaster 20 17c

koronnyi stol'nik - crown table attendant 13 1584-98

koshevoi - commander-in-chief (cossack) 25 1680s

koshevoi - field commander of the Zaporozhie Cossack Army 45 1766-68

koshevoi ataman - commanding hetman 46 1768-70

koshevyi ataman - field commander during hetmanate 20 17c

kotel'nik - boiler maker 24

kozhevennik - tanner 16 1613-34

kravchii - royal carver, a court rank 37 1741-44

krechetnik - gerfalconer 14 1598-1606

krestovye popy - crossroad priests 48 1772-74

krestovyi d'iak - chaplain 13 1584-98

krikun - heckler 21 17c

kronprints - crown prince 38 1745-48

krym-shevkal, heir apparent to Tarki 13 1584-98

ksendza - Catholic priest 26 1690s

ktitor - prior, stroitel' 21 17c

kukhmistr koronnyi - royal head chef 46 1768-70

kurennyi ataman - unit commander (cossack) 26 1690s

kurfiurst - elector 16 1613-34

kurfiurstina - wife of elector, electress 46 1768-70

kvartermistr - quartermaster 38 1745-48

lackey - lakei 37 1741-44

lady-in-waiting - shtatsdama 37 1741-44

lady of the bedchamber - kameriungera 38 1745-48

lady of the bedchamber - postel'nitsa 13 1584-98

laity - miriane 18 16-17c

lakei - lackey 37 1741-44

land agent - sadchik 25 1680s

land surveyor - mezhevshchik 46 1768-70

landless peasant (Georgia) - khizhan 07 15c

landmarshal - land marshal (Swedish) 45 1766-68

landowner-bishop - episkop-sobstvennin 18 16-17c

landrat - district councillor 37 1741-44

landrikhter(y) - provincial judge, magistrate 37 1741-44

landsknekhty - landsknechts 24

landvoit - high bailiff 12 16c

larechnye (larevoi)- officials in charge of gov. vodka, salt sales and tax collectors 37 1741-44

larechnye tseloval'niki - sworn fiscal assistants 25 1680s

lava - assessor's court 12 16c

lavnik - juror (W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

lavnik - sworn official, court assessor 12 16c

lavniki - jurors (cossack) 20 17c

lay brother - belets 21 17c

lay brother - sluzhka 24

lay official - uriadnik mirskii 18 16-17c

layman - belets 21 17c

laymen - mirskie liudi 16 1613-34

lazutchik - agent 15 1606-10

leader of fishing guild - kormnik, kormchii 06 1389-1425

leaders of the five wards (Novgorod) - piatikonetskie starosti 16 1613-34

leading military commanders - nachal'nye ratnye liudi 24

leading men - nachal'nye liudi 16 1613-34

leading merchants - gosti 16 1613-34

legat - (papal) legate 14 1598-1606

legatsion-rat - councillor-at-legation 38 1745-48

legkaia polevaia komanda - light field command 48 1772-74

legkii voevoda - roving commander 12 16c

leibgvardiia - life guards 48 1772-74

leibmedik - personal physician 46 1768-70

leitenant flota - naval first lieutenant (IX) 35 1730s

lekar' - apothecary 26 1690s

lesser men - liudi, prostye liudi 06 1389-1425

lesser noble (Polish) - szliachcic 20 17c

lesser people, folk - melkie liudi 15 1606-10

lesser princes - kniazhata 45 1766-68

levy - posokha 45 1766-68

lieutenant colonel - podpolkovnik (VII) 48 1772-74

lieutenant (cossack) - esaul (IX) 16 1613-34

lieutenant - poruchik (XI) 16 1613-34

lieutenant-captain - kapitan-poruchik (X) 48 1772-74

life guards - leibgvardiia 48 1772-74

light field command - legkaia polevaia komanda 48 1772-74

Lithuanian chancellor - litovskii kantsler 25 1680s

Lithuanian officer - potsei 45 1766-68

Lithuanian table attendant - stol'nik litovskii 48 1772-74

litovskii kantsler - lithuanian chancellor 25 1680s

little coat maker - shvechishko (derogatory) 21 17c

liubimets - favorite 13 1584-98

liudi - lesser men 06 1389-1425

liudi - men 45 1766-68

liudi dvorovye - household serfs 35 1730s

liudi guliashchie - itinerants, vagrants 35 1730s

liudi i krest'iane - domestic servants and peasants 35 1730s

liudi iasachnye - tribute-paying people 35 1730s

liudi luchshei stat'i - men of high rank 35 1730s

liudi mladshei stat'i - men of lower rank 35 1730s

liudi nachal'nye - officers 35 1730s

liudi prikaznye - crown, government officials 35 1730s

liudi serednei stat'i - men of middle rank 35 1730s

liudi sluzhilye - military servitors 35 1730s

liuterany - Lutherans 18 16-17c

local magistrate - gubnoi starosta 25 1680s

local official - gubnyi tseloval'nik 14 1598-1606

local officials - gubnye tseloval'niki 14 1598-1606

local people - obyvateli 37 1741-44

local sworn officials - tseloval'niki na vere 25 1680s

locum tenens - blustitel' 21 17c

long-standing proprietory slaves - starinnye gospodskie liudi 15 1606-10

longtime resident - znakhar 12 16c

lord - vlastel', vlastelin 06 1389-1425

lord (Polish) - pan 09 16c

lord equerry of the crown - pan koniushii koronnyi 18 16-17c

lord high chamberlain - ober-kamerger 45 1766-68

lord high marshal of the court - ober-gofmarshal 45 1766-68

lord high steward of the court - ober-gofmeistr 37 1741-44

lord high treasurer (England) - lord kaznachei 13 1584-98

lord kaznachei - lord high treasurer (England) 13 1584-98

lord lieutenant - namestnik 15 1606-10

lord lieutentant of the tsardoms of Kazan and Astrakhan (Boris Godunov) - namestnik tsarstv Kazanskogo i Astrakhanskogo 13 1584-98

lord mayor of London 14 1598-1606

lord-in-waiting - okolnichii 24

lordling - gospodarik 18 16-17c

lords of the (Polish) council - pany radnye 15 1606-10

lords of the council - pany rada (Pol.) 14 1598-1606

lords of the council - pany radnye (Pol.) 11 16c

lords presidents - gospoda prezidenty 48 1772-74

lovchii - hunter, huntsman 06 1389-1425

lovchii - warden 45 1766-68

luchshie liudi - good or best men 45 1766-68

Lutherans - liuterany 18 16-17c

magician - volkhv 13 1584-98

magistr - master 26 1690s

magistracy - magistrat 48 1772-74

magistrat - magistracy 48 1772-74

magnates - znatnaia shliakhta 20 17c

magnates - vel'mozhi, velikie liudi 10 16c

magnates' rank - vel'mozhnoe polozhenie 20 17c

magus (plural magi) - volkhv(y) 03 12-13c

Main Commissariat - glavnyi komissariat 48 1772-74

maior - major (VIII) 37 1741-44

maior gvardii - guards major (VIII) 37 1741-44

majesty - his (her) majesty 45 1766-68

major - maior (VIII) 37 1741-44

majordomo - dvoretskii 14 1598-1606

mal'chik - page 15 1606-10

mal'tiiskii kavaler' - knight of Malta 16 1613-34

malyi - novice (monastic) 14 1598-1606

malyi - servitor, underling, servant 21 17c

mama - nurse 14 1598-1606

mamka - nurse 13 1584-98

manager - prikazchik 35 1730s

margrave (markgraf) of Brandenburg, etc. Use lower case 45 1766-68

margrave of Brandenburg 08 15c

margrave of Meissen 07 15c

margravine - markgrafina 35 1730s

market farmer - khalupnik 07 15c

markgraf - margrave 38 1745-48

markgrafina - margravine 35 1730s

marki - marquis (Fr. & Eng.). Use lower case 45 1766-68

marshal - predstatel' 25 1680s

marshal - predvoditel' - elective nobiliary official 48 1772-74

marshal-in-chief (Sweden) - ober-marshal 38 1745-48

marshal nadvornyi koronnyi - lord high marshal of the court (Polish context) 45 1766-68

marshal of heralds - gerol'dmeister 38 1745-48

marshal of the court - ober-marshal 37 1741-44

marshal of the nobility - marshalok 15 1606-13

marshal (Swedish) - marshalok 16 1613-34

marshal koronnyi - crown marshal 46 1768-70

marshalok - marshal of the nobility (Pol.) 15 1606-13

marshalok - steward 26 1690s

marshalok velikii koronnyi - lord high marshal (Polish) 45 1766-68

Master craftsmen - masterovye liudi 15 1606-10

master of ceremonies - master tseremonii 25 1680s

master of ceremonies - obertseremoniimeister 38 1745-48

master of heraldry - geral'dmeister 48 1772-74

master of the horse - yaselnichii (cossack) 20 17c

master of the janissaries - yanichar-aga 46 1768-70

master of the saddle - sedel'nichii 06 1389-1425

master tseremonii - master of ceremonies 25 1680s

master korabel'nyi - skipper 16 1613-34

master silversmith - serebriannyi master 13 1584-98

masteritsa - craftswoman 24

masterovye liudi - master craftsmen 15 1606-10

mavna - governess 24

mayor, municipal official - gradskaia golova 48 1772-74

mayor - burmistr 29 18c

mechnik - swordbearer 02 11-12c

mechonosha - swordbearer 03 12-13c

medic - fizikus 48 1772-74

medical officer - shtab-lekar' 48 1772-74

medik - medic, physician 48 1772-74

medvedchik - bear trainer 45 1766-68

meider - doctor 48 1772-74

mel'nik - miller 13 1584-98

melkie liudi - lesser people 15 1606-10

members of the community - mirskie liudi 21 17c

members of the council - dumnye/blizhnye liudi 24

men - liudi 45 1766-68

men - muzhi 06 1389-1425

men of high rank - liudi luchshei stat'i 35 1730s

men of lower rank - liudi mladshei stat'i 35 1730s

men of middle rank - liudi serednei stat'i 35 1730s

merchant of the second guild - vtoroi gil'dii kupets 48 1772-74

meshchanin - burgher (Pushkarev) 14 1598-1606

meshchanstvo - burghers 18 16-17c

messenger (on foot) - khodok 37 1741-44

messenger - rassylshchik 35 1730s

messenger - svedentsyi 12 16c

messenger sergeant - ezdovoi serzhant 35 1730s

messenger - gonets 16 1613-34

metropolitan - mitropolit 15 1606-13

metropolitan - vladyka (form of address) 46 1768-70

mezhevshchik - land surveyor 46 1768-70

mezhevyi sud'ia - boundary commissioner 17 1634-45

mezhigorskie chernetsy - monks of the Caves monastery 26 1690s

miasnik - butcher 26 1690s

michman - warrant officer, midshipman (XII­XIV) 35 1730s

middleman - baryshnik 13 1584-98

military commander - Polish voyvode; Russian voevoda 48 1772-74

military Council (Danish) 48 1772-74

military governor - voevoda 24

military secretary - voiskovoi pisar' (cossack rank) 25 1680s

military service landholder 24

military servitor - pomeshchik 24

miller - mel'nik 13 1584-98

minër - sapper 26 1690s

mining engineer, master 45 1766-68

minstrel - skomorokh 14 1598-1606

mint master - denezhnyi master 21 17c

miriane - laity 18 16-17c

mirovoi sudi - justice of the peace 45 1766-68

mirskie liudi - laymen 16 1613-34

mirskie liudi - members of the commune/community 26 1690s

mitropolit - metropolitan 15 1606-13

molodchii - younger; in social connotation man of inferior status 45 1766-68

molodozhnik - wedding apparel maker 45 1766-68

Mongol commander-in-chief - temnik 04 13-14c

monk - chernets, starets, monakh 24

Moscow noble - moskovskii dvorianin 45 1766-68

moskovskii dvorianin - Moscow noble 45 1766-68

most eminent people - bol'shie liudi 16 1613-34

most illustrious - naiiasneishii 18 16-17c

mufti - Islamic jurist 48 17-18c

mulla - mullah (Islamic legal expert) 13 1584-98

mullah - abyz 21 17c

mundshenskii pomoshchnik - table-waiter 38 1745-48

municipal council 48 1772-74

murza - Tatar noble 16 1613-34

murzas - Tatar nobles 14 1598-1606

musketeers - pishchal'niki 45 1766-68

musketeers - streltsy 16 1613-34

muzhi - men 06 1389-1425

mytnik - toll collector 01 9-11c

na vere (tseloval'niki) - sworn officials 25 1680s

naborshchik - typesetter 18 16-17c

nachal'nik - chief, director or supervisor 24

nachal'nye liudi - civic officials 20 17c

nachal'nye liudi - officers (military) 21 17c

nachal'nye ratnye liudi - leading military commanders 24

nachal'nye liudi - leading men, civic leaders 16 1613-34

nachal'nyi polkovoi poruchik - lieutenant colonel 17 1634-45

nadsmotrishchik - supervisor, inspector 37 1741-44

nadvornyi kantsler - court chancellor 38 1745-48

nadvornyi sovetnik - court councillor (VII) 48 1772-74

Nadziratel' - supervisor 37 1741-44

naiiasneishii - most illustrious 18 16-17c

naimit - hireling 01 9-11c

nakaznoi - acting 35 1730s

nakaznoi getman - acting hetman 26 1690s

namestnik - lord lieutenant, governor, governor general 15 1606-10

namestnik - lord lieutenant, vicegerent 15 1606-10

namestnik (ecclesiastical rank) - vicar 21 17c

namestnik tsarstv Kazanskogo i Astrakhanskogo - lord lieutenant of the tsardoms of Kazan and Astrakhan (Boris Godunov) 13 1584-98

nariadnik - artilleryman 17 1634-45

nariadnyi voevoda - artillery commander 45 1766-68

narochnyi - special courier 38 1745-48

naslednyi prints - hereditary prince 46 1768-70

nastoiatel' - father superior 45 1766-68

nastoiatel' - rector of a church, prior 06 1389-1425

national council - natsional'nyi sovet 48 1772-74

national gathering - stechenie narodnoe 16 1613-34

natsional'nyi sovet - national council 48 1772-74

nechai-tsarevich - the "Despair" tsarevich 21 17c

nedel'shchik - constable 12 16c

nedel'shchik - hired man 26 1690s

nedorosl' - youth; underaged servitor; son of a servitor 35 1730s

nepokhozhnye liudi - peasants attached to noble's estate 45 1766-68

nevol'nik - slave 45 1766-68

newcomer (into prince's service) - prishelets 06 1389-1425

newly inducted boyar - vvedennyi boiarin 08 15c

nishchenskii - beggar 21 17c

nizhnee dukhovenstvo - parish clergy 26 1690s

nobility - znat' 24

nobleman - dvorianin 15 1606-10

nobles - dvoriane 16 1613-34

notaries public - ploshchadny podiachie 24

notary - pisar' (Lith.) 14 1598-1606

novice (monastery) - belets, mal'chik 45 1766-68

nuntsii - (papal) nuncio 14 1598-1606

nuntsii - (papal) nuncio 15 1606-10

nureddin - title of Tatar prince 20 17c

nurse - mama, baba striapchaia 14 1598-1606

nurse - mamka 13 1584-98

ober-direktor - chief director; superintendent 35 1730s

ober-egermeister - grand master of the hunt 35 1730s

ober-fiskal - senior, chief inspector. See also fiskal 37 1741-44

ober-gofmarshal - lord high marshal of the court 45 1766-68

ober-gofmeistr - lord high steward of the court 37 1741-44

ober-inspektor - chief inspector 37 1741-44

ober-kamerger - lord high chamberlain 45 1766-68

ober-komandant - chief commander; senior commander 37 1741-44

ober-komissar - chief commissioner 45 1766-68

ober-landrikhter - chief provincial judge 37 1741-44

ober-leib-medik, crown surgeon 45 1766-68

ober-marhsal - marshal-in-chief (Sweden) 38 1745-48

ober-marshal - marshal of the court 37 1741-44

ober-offitser - commissioned officer; company grade officer (18c) 37 1741-44

ober-politseimeister - chief of gendarmes 37 1741-44

ober-prezident - high president 37 1741-44

ober-prokurator - high procurator 35 1730s

ober-prokuror (Holy Synod) - chief procurator 37 1741-44

ober-prokuror - attorney general. Use chief procurator 45 1766-68

ober-sekretar (senate) - senior secretary 45 1766-68

ober-shtalmeister - grand master of horse 35 1730s

ober-tseremoniimeister - master of ceremonies 38 1745-48

oberegatel' - guardian 25 1680s

oberpolitseimeister - chief of gendarmes 38 1745-48

obiezzhi - (mounted) guard, overseer 37 1741-44

obozny - quartermaster (cossack) 20 17c

obrochnik - auxiliary soldier 15 1606-10

obrochniki - rent collectors 16 1613-34

obrochnyi krest'ianin - quitrent-paying peasant 26 1690s

obydenki - day laborers 37 1741-44

obyvatel' - inhabitant, plural "local people" 37 1741-44

odernovatyi - bound serf 06 1389-1425

odnodvorets - single homestead owner; free homesteader 35 1730s

oeconomus (monastic steward) 03 12-13c

officer (military) - starshina 15 1606-10

officers - liudi nachal'nye 35 1730s

officials - putnye 08 15c

officials attached to archbishop - arkhiereiskie prikaznye liudi 14 1598-1606

officials of foreign chancellery - posol'skogo prikaza liudi 14 1598-1606

officials of the foreign chancellery - posol'skogo prikaza liudi 14 1598-1606

ofitser dlia rasporiazheniia pochtoiu - communications officer 37 1741-44

ognishchanin - hearthman 01 9-11c

okhochye liudi - volunteers 15 1606-10

okhotnik - volunteer 13 1584-98

okhotnik-kupets - entrepreneur 38 1745-48

okladchik - tax assessor 24

okolnichii - lord-in-waiting 24

olovianishnik - tinsmith 21 17c

opal'nyi - disgraced person 06 1389-1425

oprichnik - crown servitor 13 1584-98

ordyntsy - same as deliui, only ransomed from Tatars 06 1389-1425

oruzheinichii - armorer, official in charge of making/storing weapons 45 1766-68

oruzhnichii - armorer 13 1584-98

osadnaia golova - governor's assistant 25 1680s

osadnye liudi - garrison 20 17c

osadnyi voevoda - siege commander 16 1613-34

osiflian - Josephan 13 1584-98

osmenik - tax collector 02 12c

osnach, osnastchik - member of boat's crew 06 1389-1425

osoblivyi pristav - district commander 48 1772-74

osochnik - beater 12 16c

osviashchennyi chin - consecrated estate 16 1613-34

otaman. Use ataman 20 17c

otchich - hereditary serf (W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

otchichi - those who claimed and inherited patrimonies 07 15c

otets dukhovnyi - confessor 03 12c

otkazchik - recruiter 12 16c

otkupshchik - franchise holder 26 1690s

otkupshchik - tax farmer (Ukr.) 26 1690s

otkupshchik dani - tax farmer (Tatar) 04 13-14c

otrok - servitor, servant, page 02 12c

outlaws (cossack) - vol'nitsa 21 17c

ovchinnik - sheepskin vendor 16 1613-34

overseer - bliustitel' 45 1766-68

pacholiki (polish or lithuanian) squires 15 1606-10

padishah - title of turkish sultan 46 1768-70

page - mal'chik 15 1606-10

pakholiki - squires (Polish) 16 1613-34

pakhotnyi krest'ian - farming peasant 48 1772-74

palace bodyguards - ryndy 25 1680s

palace chamber boyar - komnatnyi boiarin 21 17c

palatine - dvorskii (majordomo) 06 1389-1425

palatine - palatyn (Polish title) 03 12-13c

palatnik - councillor (Ger.) 14 1598-1606

palatnik - member of town council 12 16c

palatnye liudi - courtiers 26 1690s

palatyn (Polish title) - palatyn 03 12-13c

pan - lord (Polish) 09 16c

pan koniushii koronnyi - lord equerry of the crown 18 16-17c

pan(y) - (land)lord (West Russia, Poland) 45 1766-68

pantsyrnyi boiarin - armor-clad boyar 12 16c

pany - Polish noblemen 11 16c

pany rada - lords of the council (Pol.) 14 1598-1606

papa - the Pope 04 13-14c

papal chamberlain - podkomorii 18 16-17c

papal internuncio - internuntsii 45 1766-68

papal legate - legat 14 1598-1606

papal legate - papskii legat 13 1584-98

papal legate - posol papskii 11 16c

papal nuncio - nuntsii, posol papskii 14 1598-1606

papal nuncio - papskii nuntsii 13 1584-98

papezhnik - papist 18 16-17c

papist - papezhnik 18 16-17c

papskii legat - papal legate 13 1584-98

papskii nuntsii - papal nuncio 13 1584-98

pardusnik - hunter of predatory animals 06 1389-1425

parish clerk - tserkovnyi d'iachok 18 16-17c

parish priests - belye sviashchenniki 16 1613-34

parobok - young servant 08 15c

parubok - boy (W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

pasha - Turkish official 48 17-18c

pashennye muzhiki - plowmen 13 1584-98

patriarch - patriarkh 15 1606-10

patriarchal exarch - ekzarkh patriarshii 18 16-17c

patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox church 24 18c

patriarkh - patriarch 15 1606-10

patriarkh pressburskii - patriarch of Pressburg 26 1690s

patriarkh vselenskii - ecumenical patriarch 13 1584-98

peasant (Pol., W. Russ.) - kmet 45 1766-68

peasant - krest'ianin; state - gosudarstvenntyi; economic - ekonomicheskii; industrial - pripisnyi k zavodu; peasants attached to noble's estate - nepokhozhnye liudi 45 1766-68

pechatnik - keeper of state seal or chancellor 45 1766-68

people of various ranks - raznochintsy 35 1730s

peredovshchik - foreman 45 1766-68

perekhozhie liudi - transients 18 16-17c

perevetnik - infomer, perjurer 06 1389-1425

perevodchik - translator 16 1613-34

perjurer - perevetnik 06 1389-1425

permanent council - postoiannyi sovet 48 1772-74

persons of various ranks - raznykh chinov liudei 48 1772-74

pervosovetnik - senior member or first councillor 45 1766-68

pervostateinyi kupets - first-guild merchant 48 1772-74

pervyi ministr - first minister 26 1690s

pervyi voevoda - senior governor 13 1584-98

peshtsy - foot soldiers, poor peasants 06 1389-1425

petty landowner - zemets 12 16c

pevchii - chorister 26 1690s

pevchii d'iak - choir cleric, cantor 12 16c

pfal'tskii - count palatine 16 1613-34

physician - fizikus, medik 48 1772-74

piatidesiatnik - commander of half-company 14 1598-1606

piatidesiatnik - sergeant (musketeers) 26 1690s

piatidesiatnik - sergeant 25 1680s

piatidesiatniki - sergeants 25 1680s

piatidesiatskii - fiftyman 12 16c

piatidesiatskii - police lieutenant; platoon leader 24

piatikonetskie starosti - leaders of the five wards (novgorod) 16 1613-34

piatisotnyi - brigadier (musketeers) 25 1680s

pikiner - lancer 45 1766-68

pilgrim - bogomolets 15 1606-10

pilot - vozh 21 17c

pis'mennyi golova - adjutant 21 17c

pis'mennyi golova - military clerk 12 16c

pisar' - high notary (Lithuania) 14 1598-1606

pisar' - secretary, scribe 25 1680s

pisar' - secretary (in the Ukrainian Cossack army), scribe 45 1766-68

pishchal'niki - musketeers 45 1766-68

pitch maker - budnik 21 17c

pleban - secular clergyman 26 1690s

pledgeman - zakladnik 01 9-11c

plenipotentiaries - upolnomochennye 16 1613-34

plenipotentiary - polnomochnyi, poverennyi 15 1606-10

ploshchadnye podiachie - notaries public 24

ploshchadnye stolniki - table attendants of the portico; one of two ranks of stolniki. See also domnatnye 24

ploshchadnyi pischik - notary public, marketplace scribe 12 16c

plowman - pakhotnyi krest'ianin 48 1772-74

plowman (pakhotnyi) 48 1772-74

plowmen - pashennye muzhiki 13 1584-98

pod'iachii - clerk, underclerk, undersecretary, scrivener (context) 15 1606-13

pod'iachii s pripis'iu - clerk for signing papers 26 1690s

pod'iachii, molodoi - junior clerk 24

pod'iachii, staryi - senior clerk 24

pod"ezdnoi - adjutant (of prince) 06 1389-1425

podatnye liudi - tax payers 26 1690s

podchashii - under cupbearer 45 1766-68

podiachie neverstannye - unenrolled (crown) clerks, scribes 24

podiakon - subdeacon 24

podkantseliarist - junior clerk 35 1730s

podkantsler - assistant chancellor (Pol.) 38 1745-48

podkelar' - sub-cellarer 06 1389-1425

podkomorii - papal chamberlain 18 16-17c

podkomorii - property magistrate (in old Poland and Lithuania) 45 1766-68

podpolkovnik - lieutenant colonel (VII) 48 1772-74

podporuchnik - second lieutenant (XII) 37 1741-44

podpraporshchik - subaltern (1650s) 24

podriadchik - contractor 26 1690s

podrotmeistr - assistant wagon master (military) 17 1634-45

podskarbii - crown treasurer (Polish) 45 1766-68

podskarbii - treasurer (cossack) 20 17c

podskarbii koronnii - crown treasurer 25 1680s

podskarbii litovskii - crown treasurer of Lithuania 13 1584-98

podstarosta - steward (Pol.) 26 1690s

podstarosta - sub-prefect 45 1766-68

podsudok - assistant magistrate 12 16c

podvodchik - wagoner 26 1690s

podvoiski - constable 45 1766-68

podvoiski - usher, serjeant 45 1766-68

podvoiskie - legal agents who summoned people to court 07 15c

podymochnik - hearth tax collector 17 1634-45

pokhozhie liudi - free peasants, able to move between districts 45 1766-68

pokladnik - gentleman of the bedchanmber 02 11-12c

pokoevoi dvorianin (Pol.)- chamberlain, gentleman of the chamber 26 1690s

polevoi polkovnik (cossack rank) - field colonel 25 1680s

police constable - gendarme constable 48 1772-74

police officers - zemskie liudi 16 1613-34

Polish magnates - velmozhi 11 16c

politseimeister. See general politseimeister, ober-politseimeister 37 1741-44

politseiskii starosta - gendarme constable 48 1772-74

polkovnik - colonel (of new-style regiments); golova of muskeeters; equivalent of regimental commander (VI) 24

polkovnyi nabatnik - regimental drummer 17 1634-45

polkovoi voevoda - colonel 45 1766-68

polnomochnyi - plenipotentiary 15 1606-10

polovinshchik - co-owner of property 24

polugolova - battalion commander (of musketeers); equals major

in new style regiments (1640s ff) 24

polupolkovnik - lieutenant colonel 24

pomershchik - assayer or measurement official 12 16c

pomeshchik - military servitor, landholder, service tenure holder 24

pomeshchitsa - wife of service tenure holder 24

ponomar' - sexton, reader 14 1598-1606

poor peasants - peshtsy 06 1389-1425

pop krestovoi - priest attached to bishop's or private household 37 1741-44

pop-starets - priest-monk (Old Believer) 37 1741-44

popad'ia - priest's wife 13 1584-98

Pope, the 15 16c

popovich - priest's son 16 1613-34

popovskie desiatskie - sub-parish priests 14 1598-1606

popovskoi starosta - senior priest supervising several parishes 37 1741-44

poriadchik - contractor 37 1741-44

portnoi - tailor 18 16-17c

poruchik - lieutenant (XI) 24 17c

posadnik (appointed) - burgrave 02 12c

posadnik (elected) - mayor 45 1766-68

posadnitsa - mayoress (wife of a mayor) 45 1766-68

posadskie liudi - (tax paying) townsmen 24

posadskii chelovek - (tax paying) townsman, dweller 24

posel'skii - manager of a rural district 12 16c

poslannik - ambassador 46 1768-70

poslannik - emissary, envoy 15 1606-10

poslukh - character witness 12 16c

posly povetovye - district deputies (to Polish Sejm) 13 1584-98

posly zemskie - land envoys 12 16c

posokha - levy, auxiliary troops 45 1766-68

posol - ambassador 15 1606-10

posol papskii - papal nuncio, legate 14 1598-1606

posol'skii d'iak - crown secretary of foreign affairs 15 1606-10

posol'skogo prikaza liudi - officials of foreign chancellery 14 1598-1606

posolskii dumnyi diak - crown secretary of diplomatic affairs 24

pososhnye liudi - tax-paying peasants 12 16c

pospol'stvo - commoners, citizens at large 12 16c

postal agent - iamskoi prikashchik 25 1680s

postal agent - iamshchik 38 1745-48

postal couriers - iamskie okhotniki 15 1606-10

postel'nichii - gentleman of the bedchamber 13 1584-98

postel'nik - chamberlain 06 1389-1425

postel'nitsa - lady of the bedchamber 13 1584-98

postoiannyi sovet - permanent council 48 1772-74

posul'nik - briber 06 1389-1425

posylshchik - chancellery agent 35 1730s

poteshnye koniukhi - stableboy playmates 26 1690s

potsei - lithuanian officer 45 1766-68

potter - gornechnik 24

povar - cook, chef 37 1741-44

poverennyi - agent, delegate, trustee, plenipotentiary 15 1606-10

poverennyi v delakh - chargé d'affaires 46 1768-70

pozemshchik - quitrent-paying tenant 07 15c

praporshchik - ensign 48 1772-74

pravetchik - bailiff 24

pravetchik - exactor 12 16c

pravitel' - governor (Swedish), ruler 16 1613-34

pravitel'stvennoe litso - administrative officer 13 1584-98

preacher - propovednik 48 1772-74

precentor - ustavnik, ustavshchik 17 1634-45

predmeshchanin - someone from the provinces 18 16-17c

predstatel' - marshal 25 1680s

predvoditel' - marshal, elective nobiliary official 48 1772-74

prefect (W. Russ.) - derzhavtsa 45 1766-68

prefect - starosta 03 12-13c

prefect - voit 20 17c

prem'er-maior - first major (VIII) 48 1772-74

Preobrazhensky Guards Regiment 48 1772-74

presbyter - prezviter 18 16-17c

president - prezident 48 1772-74

President of the Main Magistracy - prezident glavnogo magistrata 48 1772-74

prezident - president 48 1772-74

prezident glavnogo magistrata - president of the Chief Magistracy 48 1772-74

prezviter - presbyter 18 16-17c

pribory takogo-to golovy - contract recruits under a certain commander 12 16c

pribylshchik - profiteer 45 1766-68

prichetnik - minor cleric 12 16c

prichetnik - psalm reader 06 1389-1425

pridel'nyi popdiakon - deacon on bishop's staff 24

pridvernik - sergeant-at-arms 06 1389-1425

pridvornye liudi - household servants 15 1606-10

priest's son - popovich 16 1613-34

priest's wife - popad'ia 13 1584-98

priestly charater witness - storonnyi sviashchennik 21 17c

priezzhie liudi - visiting townsmen 16 1613-34

prikashchik - chancellery official 14 1598-1606

prikashchik - company clerk (Muscovy Company) 13 1584-98

prikashchik - manager 12 16c

prikazchik - chancellery official 12 16c

prikazchik - manager, steward 35 1730s

prikaznoi - director of bishop's chancellery 25 1680s

prikaznoi pristav - chancellery warden 25 1680s

prikaznoi storozh - guard posted in administrative office 24

prikaznye - clerks 35 1730s

prikaznye liudi - chancellery officials 15 1606-13

prikazov pod'iache - crown clerk 14 1598-1606

primas - primate (Catholic) 16 1613-34

primate (Catholic) - primas 16 1613-34

prince (foreign) - korolevich 16 1613-34

prince - kniaz' 16 1613-34

prince-bishop - kniaz'-biskup 18 16-17c

prince's tutor - kormil'shchik 06 1389-1425

princely grace - kniazheskaia milost' 16 1613-34

principal boyars - verkhovaia boirainia 24

prints - prince 46 1768-70

prior - ktitor, stroitel' 21 17c

prior - nastoiatel' 06 1389-1425

pripisnye krest'iane - assigned peasants 48 1772-74

pripisnyi k zavodu (krest'iane) - industrial peasants 48 1772-74

prishelets - newcomer (into prince's service) 06 1389-1425

prisiazhnik - vassal 13 1584-98

prison warder - tiuremnyi 24

prison watchguard - tiuremnyi storozh 24

prisoner sentenced to hard labor - katorzhnik 46 1768-70

prispeshnik - scullery servant 21 17c

pristav - bailiff; official escort on trips, usually of foreigners 45 17c

pristavnik - agent 14 1598-1606

pristavnik - bailiff, agent 01 9-11c

prisyl'shchik - emissary 21 17c

privy boyar - vvedennyi boiarin 06 1389-1425

privy boyars - boyars of the throne room (blizhnye boiare) 24

privy cabinet secretary - tainyi kabinet-sekretar' 37 1741-44

privy commander - blizhnii voevoda 13 1584-98

privy councillors - blizhnie liudi. See tainyi sovetnik 48 1772-74

privy secretary - d'iak vvedennyi 06 1389-1425

privy table attendant - blizhnii stol'nik 25 1680s

privy counicllor - blizhnyi chelovek 16 1613-34

privy lords-in-waiting - blizhnye okolnichie 24

procurator - prokurator 18 16-17c

procurator general - general-prokuror 48 1745-48

procurator general of the senate 48 1772-74

professed brotherhood/brothers - riadovaia bratiia 21 17c

professional soldier - zholner 45 1766-68

profiteer - pribylshchik 45 1766-68

profost - provost 17 1634-45

prokurator, prokuror - procurator general 48 1772-74

prokuraty - persons living under ecclesiastical administration 06 1389-1425

prokuror - magistrate 35 1730s

prokuror - procurator 18 16-17c

promyshlenniki - businessmen, enterprisers, traders 45 1766-68

promyshlennye liudi - entrepreneurs 26 1690s

proofreader - spravshchik 25 1680s

propovednik - preacher 45 1766-68

prosfirnia, proskuritsa, prosvira - prosphora (communion bread baker) 12 16c

prosphora (communion bread) baker - prosfirnia, proskuritsa, prosvira 12 16c

prostye liudi - lesser men 06 1389-1425

prosvirnik - sacristan 24

protodiakon - archdeacon 24

protokolist - clerk who keeps minutes, stenographer 37 1741-44

protopop - archpriest 16 1613-34

protosingel - special patrarchal emissary 18 16-17c

proveditor - governor (Venice) 46 1768-70

provincial commissioners - zemskie komissary 29 18c

provincial governor - provintsial'nyi voevoda 37 1741-44

provincial judges - landrikhtery 29 18c

provincial secretary - provintsial'nyi sekretar' (XIII) 37 1741-44

Provincial servitors - dvoriane gorodovye 14 1598-1606

provincial - iz gorodov 16 1613-34

Provintsial'nyi sekretar' - provincial secretary (XIII) 37 1741-44

Provintsial'nyi voevoda - provincial governor 37 1741-44

provozhatyi - guide 13 1584-98

Prussia, grand master of 08 15c

psalm reader - prichetnik 06 1389-1425

psalmist - diachok 24

psalmist - psalomshchik 21 17c

psalomshchik - psalmist, sexton 21 17c

psari - huntsmen 06 1389-1425

pudovshchiki veshchego - weighing agents 12 16c

pushkar - cannoneer, artilleryman, gunner; also inhabitant of Pushkarskaia Sloboda (Moscow) 24

pushkarskaia golova - artillery commander 25 1680s

pustynnik - anchorite 06 1389-1425

Putivl cossacks 11 16c

putnye - officials 08 15c

putnyi boiarin - administrative boyar 06 1389-1425

putnyi kliuchnik - administrative steward 12 16c

pysar viiskovyi - secretary (cossack) 20 17c

quality controller - brakovshchik 37 1741-44

quartermaster - kvartermistr 38 1745-48

quartermaster - oboznyi (cossack) 20 17c

quartermaster general - general-fel'dtseikhmeister 48 1772-74

quartermaster sergeant - kantenarmus 38 1745-48

quitrent-paying tenant - pozemshchik 07 15c

raba - female slave 15 1606-10

rabotnik - bonded laborer 21 17c

raiders - ushkuiniki 06 1389-1425

raitsy - regional administrators 20 17c

rank-and-file (adj.) - riadovye 25 1680s

rank-and-file (noun) - chern' 20 17c

raspop - former priest 45 1766-68

rasstriga - renegade monk (caps for False Dmitry) 15 1606-10

rassylshchik - messenger, dispatcher 35 1730s

ratmann (German) - alderman 14 1598-1606

ratnye liudi - soldiers 14 1598-1606

raznochintsy - people of various ranks 35 1730s

raznykh chinov liudi - persons of various ranks 48 1772-74

razriadnyi d'iak 12 16c

reader (church) - diachok, ponomar 24

rear admiral - kontr-admiral (IV) 46 1768-70

rector (Moscow Academy) - bliustitel' 45 1766-68

rector of a church - nastoiatel' 06 1389-1425

reestrovye kozaki - registered cossacks 18 16-17c

reeve - tiun 03 12-13c

reeve - voit (German title) 03 12-13c

refectory steward - trapeznik 06 1389-1425

referendarz - referendary, official ranking below the grand secretary 20 17c

reformer, the (caps when referring to Peter the Great) 45 1766-68

regent - vlastel' 13 1584-98

regiment-shul'tsen - provost 17 1634-45

regimental captain - sotennyi golova 20 17c

regimental commander of Khazar army - tarkhan 24

regimentar koronnyi - royal regimentarian (Polish) 45 1766-68

regional administrators - raitsy 20 17c

regional secretary - gubernskii sekretar' (XI) 37 1741-44

registered cossacks - reestrovye kozaki 18 16-17c

registrar - registrator 48 1772-74

registrator - registrar 48 1772-74

reis-effendi - foreign minister (Turkish) 37 1741-44

reitar - cavalry soldier, heavy cavalryman 24

reitarskie liudi - cavalrymen 24

reketmeistr - master of petitions 45 1766-68

remonter - remount officer 45 1766-68

renegade monk - rasstriga 15 1606-10

rent collectors - obrochniki 16 1613-34

reshetochnyi prikazchik - street patrol guard, street warden 12 16c

resident (ambassador) - rezident 37 1741-44

resident noble - zhilets 21 17c

residents of the capital - zhil'tsy 16 1613-34

retainer - druzhinnik 01 9-11

revenue collectors - denezhnye sborshchiki 24

rezident (Russ.) - diplomat, resident 25 1680s

rezident - resident (ambassador) 37 1741-44

riadovaia bratiia - professed brotherhood/brothers 21 17c

riadovye - rank-and-file (adj.) 25 1680s

rimskii tsesar - Holy Roman emperor 16 1613-34

ringleader - zabrodchik, zavodchik 21 17c

river pirate -ushkuinik 24

rizhnichii - sacristan 24

rotmeistr - wagon master (military) 17 1634-45

rotmistr - cavalry captain (IX) 24

rotnyi zaimshchik - recruiting sergeant 17 1634-45

royal privy council - tainyi sovet korolevskii (Pol.) 48 1772-74

royal quartermaster - koronnyi obozny 20 17c

royal carver - kravchii 16 1613-34

royal commissioners - komissary korolevskie 18 16-17c

royal secretary - sekretar' korolevskii 18 16-17c

royal senator - senator korolevskii 18 16-17c

rural district resident - voloshchanin 12 16c

ruzhnik - artilleryman, armorer 15 1606-10

ruzhnyi starosta - artillery captain 18 16-17c

ruzhnyi sviashchennik - stipendiary priest, emolument priest 12 16c

rybolov - fisherman 45 1766-68

ryndy - palace bodyguards 25 1680s

rytsarstvo - gentry, squires (Swedish context) 26 1690s

sable handler - sobol'nik 13 1584-98

sacristan - kliuchar, prosvirnik, rizhnichii 24

sadchik - bailiff responsible for conscripting/settling immigrants, land agent 25 1680s

saddlemaker - sedel'nik 06 1389-1425

sadovnik - gardener, vine dresser 06 1389-1425

sales clerk - sidelets 37 1741-44

salesman - verkoper 12 16c

saltan, Siberian 11 16c

samoderzhitsa - autocrat (feminine form) 26 1690s

san dukhovnyi - holy orders 15 1606-10

sanjak - ruler of subdistrict (Turkish) 25 1680s

sanovnik - dignitary 13 1584-98

sapozhnik - cobbler 18 16-17c

sborshchik iasaka - fur tribute gatherer 14 1598-1606

sborshchiki - tax collectors 16 1613-34

scale attendant - vesovshchik 06 1389-1425

schema nun (female equivalent of starets) - staritsa 21 17c

schismatic - skhizmatik 18 16-17c

school teacher - shkol'nyi uchitel' 15 1606-10

schul - overseer of village (German law) 45 1766-68

scribe - pisar', d'iachok 48 1772-74

scullery servant - prispeshnik 21 17c

seamstress - shveia 24

searcher - vyimshchik 37 1741-44

second lieutenant - podporuchik 37 1741-44

second lieutenant (cossack) - esaulishka 21 17c

secretary (cossack) - pysar viiskovyi 20 17c

secretary - sekretar', pisar' 48 1772-74

secretary to tsar - tsarskii d'iak 15 1606-10

secretary, scribe - pisar' 25 1680s

secular clergy - sviashchenniki 16 1613-34

sedel'nichii - aide 04 13-14c

sedel'nichii - master of the saddle 06 1389-1425

sedel'nik - saddlemaker 06 1389-1425

sekretar ekspeditsii - executive secretary; chief secretary of an office/bureau 37 1741-44

sekretar' - secretary 48 1772-74

sekretar' korolevskii - royal secretary 18 16-17c

sekund-maior - second major (VIII) 46 1768-70

select Moscow gentry - dvoriane moskovskie 14 1598-1606

select provincial gentry - dvoriane vybornye 14 1598-1606

select provincial gentry - vybornye iz gorodov dvoriane 16 1613-34

selitrenik - saltpeter worker 26 1690s

senator (Polish) 15 1606-10

senator korolevskii - royal senator 18 16-17c

senators - senatory 16 1613-34

senior clerk - starshii kantselarist 25 1680s

senior governor - pervyi voevoda 13 1584-98

senior people - velikie liudi 16 1613-34

sentinel - vorotnoi storozh 24

sentry - storozha, voronoi storozh 15 1606-10

seraskir (Turkish rank) - commander-in- chief, war minister 48 1772-74

serdar - military commander 46 1768-70

serdechnik(i) - people who remove hearts from corpses 45 1766-68

serdiuki - infantry (cossack) 26 1690s

serebriannyi master - master silversmith 13 1584-98

sergeant - piatidesiatnik 25 1680s

sergeant - sotnik 21 17c

sergeant - sotskii 16 1613-34

sergeant-at-arms - pridvernik 06 1389-1425

sergeants - piatidesiatniki 25 1680s

Servant - Sluga (special title for Boris Godunov) 13 1584-98

servant, servitor - malyi 21 17c

servant girl - sluzhanka 15 1606-13

service foreigners 24

service gentry - dvoriane 24

service gentry of Moscow - dvoriane moskovskie 24

service gentry of the council (dumnye dvoriane) 24

service nobility - dvorianstvo 13 1584-98

service tenure holder - pomeshchik 24

servicemen - sluzhilye liudi 15 1606-10

servitor - dvorianin 25 1680s

servitor - otrok 04 13-14c

serzhant - sergeant (guards) 26 1690s

settlement elder - slobodchik 24

sexton - ekklesiarkh (ekusiarkh) 37 1741-44

sexton - ponomar' 14 1598-1606

sexton - psalomshchik 21 17c

shafer - steward (Pol. Magdeburg Law) 12 16c

shah - shakh 16 1613-34

shah-zadeh - sovereign's son (Persian and Turkic) 45 1766-68

shamans - arbui chudskie 12 16c

sharecropper - izornik 45 1766-68

shautbenakht - rear admiral 26 1690s

shavkal 26 1690s

sheepskin vendor - ovchinnik 16 1613-34

shevkal, ruler of Tarki 13 1584-98

shkol'nyi uchitel' - schoolteacher 15 1606-10

shliakhta (Pol. szlachta) - Polish gentry 16 1613-34

shliakhta (szlachta) - gentry (Polish) 16 1613-34

shliakhtich (Polish) - squire 26 1690

shpion - spy 18 16-17c

shtab-lekar - medical officer, staff doctor 48 1772-74

shtab-ofitser - field officer; field grade officer 37 1741-44

shtad'gal'ter - stadholder (Netherlands) 16 1613-34

shtadt-fizikus - city medical officer 37 1741-44

shtatgal'ter - staatsalter (Danish) 45 1766-68

shtatsdama - lady-in-waiting 37 1741-44

shturman - helmsman 48 1772-74

shtyk-iunker - master sergeant 35 1730s

shut - jester, veselyi chelovek 15 1606-10

shvechishko - little coat maker (derogatory) 21 17c

shveia - seamstress 24

siabr - co-owner, member of rural cooperative land association 45 1766-68

sidelets - sales clerk 37 1741-44

siege commander - osadnyi voevoda 16 1613-34

single homestead owner - odnodvorets 35 1730s

siroty - orphans; form of address used in petitions by urban lower classes and peasants when referring to themselves 37 1741-44

skhizmatik - schismatic 18 16-17c

skhodnik - informant 15 1606-10

skilled men - iskusnye liudi 12 16c

skipper - kormnik, kormchii 06 1389-1425

skipper - master korabel'nyi 16 1613-34

skladnik - sharer in economic undertaking 07 15c

skomorokh - minstrel 14 1598-1606

skupshchik - hired man 13 1584-98

sladeniki - cooperative exporters pooling goods to an agent for trade with China 37 1741-44

slave - kholop (female raba), nevol'nik 15 1606-10

slaves under contract - kabal'nye kholopy 45 1766-68

sledovatel' - investigator 13 1584-98

slobodchik - settlement elder 24

slobodskoi (prikashchik) - chief official 25 1680s

slobodskoi namestnik - settlement governor 12 16c

sluga - servitor, a court rank 45 1766-68

Sluga - Servant (special title for Boris Godunov) 13 1584-98

sluga putnyi - administrative servitor 12 16c

slugi pod dvorskim - servitors under majordomo 06 1389-1425

slugi vol'nye - free servitors 06 1389-1425

sluzhanka - servant girl 15 1606-10

sluzhilye liudi - servicemen, contract servitors 15 1606-10

sluzhilye liudi - state servitors 12 16c

sluzhka - attendant 12 16c

sluzhka - lay brother 24

smerd - peasant, commoner (context) 01 9-11c

snuznik - horseman 06 1389-1425

sobornye startsy - synodal elders 16 1613-34

social group, estate (W. Russ) - stan 45 1766-68

soderzhatel' - keeper, holder 45 1766-68

sokol'nik - falconer 14 1598-1606

sokolnichii - master of the falcons (court rank) 45 1766-68

sokolnik - falconer 26 1690s

soldat - infantry soldier 24

soldat godovoi - annual contract infantryman 26 1690s

soldat gorodovoi - town/garrison infantryman 26 1690s

soldaty - soldiers, infantry 45 1766-68

soldier (in new regiments) - zheldak 24

soldiers - ratnye liudi 14 1598-1606

someone from the provinces - predmeshchanin 18 16-17c

son of a servitor - nedorosl' 35 1730s

sorcerer - vedun 13 1584-98

sosed - boarder 24

sotennye starshiny - cossack army elders 45 1766-68

sotennyi golova - regimental captain 20 17c

sotnik (civilian) - hundredman 15 1606-10

sotnik - company commander 14 1598-1606

sotnik streletskii - captain of musketeers 14 1598-1606

sotnik(military) - sergeant, captain, company commander (context) 15 1606-10

sotskii - captain 21 17c

sotskii - hundredman (civilian) 15 1606-13

sotskii - police captain 24

sotskii starosta - elected local offical 45 1766-68

sovereign - gosudar' 15 1606-10

sovereign duke - vladetel'nyi gertsog 37 1741-44

sovetnik iustitskii - judicial councillor 35 1730s

sovetnik konferentsii - councillor to the conference 48 1772-74

sovetnik - councillor 48 1772-74

sovetnye liudi - advisers 24

spafar - swordbearer 45 1766-68

spalnik - gentleman of the bedchamber. See also postelnichii 24 18c

special courier - narochnyi 38 1745-48

special patriarchal emissary - protosingel 18 16-17c

spitardnyi master - explosives expert 17 1634-45

spokesman - tal'man (Swedish) 38 1745-48

spravets - vicar-general 12 16c

spravshchik - corrector, proof reader 25 1680s

spy - shpion 18 16-17c

squires (Polish) - pakholiki 16 1613-34

srednei stat'i - (merchants) of middle order 37 1741-44

staatsalter (Danish) - shtatsgal'ter 45 1766-68

stableboy playmates - poteshnye koniukhi 26 1690s

stablemaster - iasel'nichii 21 17c

stadholder - stad'gal'ter 16 1613-34

staff doctor - shtab-lekar 48 1772-74

stan - estate, social group (W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

standard bearer - khorunzhii (Pol.) 15 1606-10

standardbearer - bunchunzhyi 25 1680s

stanichnik - trooper, village cossack 12 16c

stanichnik - village cossack 10 16c

stanichnyi golova - cossack captain 15 1606-10

stanichnyi golova - frontier commandant 12 16c

stanichnyi ataman - station ataman (cossack) 26 1690s

starets - brother (monastic), monk, elder 45 1766-68

starinnye gospodskie liudi - long-standing proprietary slaves 15 1606-10

staritsa - schema nun (female version of starets) 21 17c

starosta (Pol.) - prefect (CL) 14 1598-1606

starosta - elder, prefect (Pol.) 15 1606-13

starosta popovskii - dean (ecclesiastical) 12 16c

starosty gorodovye - town elders 15 1606-10

starshii kantselarist - senior clerk 25 1680s

starshina - officer (military) 15 1606-10

stat'i (luchshei, serediny, men'shei) - status (high, middling, lower)26 1690s

state councillor - statskii sovetnik - civil service rank 48 1772-74

statskii sovetnik - state councillor - civil service rank (V) 45 1766-68

stenographer - protokolist 37 1741-44

stepennyi posadnik - senior mayor (Novgorod) 45 1766-68

steward - ekonom, prikazchik, upravitel' 35 1730s

steward - kliuchnik 24

steward - tiun 01 9-11c

steward - tseloval'nik 37 1741-44

stockade guard - zatinshchik 35 1730s

stoialye golovy - border sentry officers 12 16c

stol'nik litovskii - Lithuanian table attendant 48 1772-74

stolnik - palace official; table attendent (court rank) 45 1766-68

stolnik komnatnyi - table attendant of the throne room 45 1766-68

storonnyi sviashchennik - priestly character witness 21 17c

storozha - watchman (clergy) 46 1768-70

storozha, storozh - sentry, guard 15 1606-10

strazhnik litovskii - Lithuanian frontier commander 45 1766-68

street elders - ulitskie starosti 16 1613-34

street sentry - ulitskii karaul'shchik 18 16-17c

strelchikha - musketeer woman/wife 26 1690s

streltsy - musketeers 16 1613-34

stremiannye - mounted bodyguards (musketeers) 26 1690s

striapchii - crown agent (if in tsar's service) 16 1613-34

strigol'nik - detonsured monk, defrocked priest 06 1389-1425

stroitel' - superior, prior, ktitor (lowest-ranking monastic superior) 21 17c

sub-cellarer - podkelar' 06 1389-1425

sub-parish priests - popovskie desiatskie 14 1598-1606

sub-prefect - podstarosta 45 1766-68

subprecentor - golovshchik 17 1634-45

sud'ia - judge 14 1598-1606

sud'ia general'nyi - chief justice 25 1680s

sud'ia - chief justice (cossack) 26 1690s

sudebnyi pisar' - law clerk (military) 17 1634-45

sukonnik - cloth merchant 16 1613-34

sultan 16 1613-34

superintendant of crown taverns - golova kruzhechnogo dvora 21 17c

superior - stroitel', lowest of three ranks in monastic hierarchy 37 1741-44

supervisor - bliustitel', nachal'nik, nadsmotrishchik, nadziratel' 45 1766-68

supreme privy council member - verkhovnik 45 1766-68

surgeon general - arkhiater 45 1766-68

surnach - bugler 14 1598-1606

svedentsyi - messenger, informant, witness 12 16c

svetleishii kniaz' - most illustrious prince (Menshikov) 37 1741-44

sviaschennyi sluzhitel' - churchman, cleric 35 1730s

sviashchenniki pridvornye - court chaplains 15 1606-10

sviashvhenniki - secular clergy 16 1613-34

svoe sviatel'stvo - your holiness (patriarch) 15 1606-10

svoe sviatitel'stvo - your holiness (patriarch) 15 1606-10

svoedvorets - one who owns his own house 12 16c

svoezemets - owner of land in his own right 24

swordbearer - mechnik 02 11-12c

swordbearer - mechonosha 03 12-13c

swordbearer - spafar 45 1766-68

sworn fiscal assistants - larechnye tseloval'niki 25 1680s

syn boiarskii (plural deti boiarskie) - junior boyar(s) 24

synodal elders - sobornye startsy 16 1613-34

syromiatnik - tanner 18 16-17c

syshchik - investigator 26 1690s

sytnik - brewer 17 1634-45

szlachta (Russ. shliakhta) - Polish gentry 45 1766-68

szliachcic - lesser noble (Polish) 20 17c

szliachta - Polish gentry, petty nobility 11 16c

table attendant (royal household) - stol'nik 15 1606-13

table waiter - munbdshenkskii pomoshchnik 38 1745-48

tafeldekerskii pomoshchnik - cupbearer 38 1745-48

tailor - portnoi 18 16-17c

tainoi dumy dumets - chief privy councillor 13 1584-98

tainyi kabinet-sekretar' - privy cabinet secretary 37 1741-44

tainyi sovetnik - privy councillor. See blizhnye liudi (III) 48 1772-74

taisha - chieftain (Kalmyk) 26 1690s

tal'man - spokesman (Swedish) 38 1745-48

tamozhennye golovy - customs chiefs 16 1613-34

tamozhennyi tseloval'nik - customs inspector, official 37 1741-44

tanner - kozhevennik, syromiatnik 16 1613-34

tarkhan - regimental commander of Khazar army 24

tarkovskii shevkal - shavkal of Tarkov 26 1690s

Tatar dignitary, noble - bey 25 1680s

Tatar dignitary, noble - karachei 25 1680s

Tatar nobles - murzas, ulani 14 1598-1606

Tatar official, tax collector 45 1766-68

Tatar tex collector - baskak 04 13-14c

tax assessors - okladchiki 24

tax farmer (crown) - otkupshchik 48 1772-74

tax collector - sborshchik 16 1613-34

tax collector - tseloval'nik 37 1741-44

taxpayers - tiaglye liudi 24

taxpaying - tiaglyi 16 1613-34

taxpaying state peasants - chernososhnye krest'iane 07 15c

teachers - uchitel'nye liudi 13 1584-98

teamster - izvoshchik 13 1584-98

telokhraniteli - bodyguards 15 1606-10

temnik - Mongol commander-in-chief 04 13-14c

temnyi kniaz' - prince, captain of a myriad (t'ma) 06 1389-1425

tenman - desiatskii 12 16c

territorial prince - udel'nyi kniaz' - pertaining to Habsburgs 11 16c

third party judge or witness - tretei, tretii 06 1389-1425

tiaglets - tax-paying member of community 26 1690s

tiaglye liudi - taxpayers 24

tiaglyi - taxpaying 16 1613-34

tinsmith - olovianishnik 21 17c

tithe collector - desiatil'nik, desiatinnik 12 16c

tiun - agent, steward 02 12c

tiuremnyi - prison warder 24

tiuremnyi storozh - prison watchguard 24

toll collector - mytnik 01 9-11c

tolmach - interpreter 25 1680s

torgovye chernye liudi - common traders 13 1584-98

torgovye liudi - traders 16 1613-34

torgovye muzhiki - trading peasants 13 1584-98

tovarishch voevodskii - assistant governor 21 17c

town administrator - uriad grodskii 18 16-17c

town cossacks (part of garrison) - gorodovye kozaki 24

town governor - gorodovoi voevoda 37 1741-44

town prefect - gorodovoi prikashchik 13 1584-98

town service gentry -dvoriane gorodovye 24

town official - gorodovoi prikashchik 16 1613-34

townsman, dweller (tax paying) - posadskii chelovek 24

townsmen (tax paying) - posadskie liudi 24

townsmen - posadskie liudi 15 1606-10

traders - promyshlenniki 26 1690s

traders - torgovye liudi 16 1613-34

trading peasants - torgovye muzhiki 13 1584-98

transients - perekhozhie liudi 18 16-17c

translator - perevodchik 16 1613-34

trapeznik - refectory steward 06 1389-1425

treasurer - kaznachei 16 1613-34

tretchik - administrator 12 16c

tretei, tretii - third party judge or witness 06 1389-1425

tretii zhereb' - sharecropper 20 17c

tribute-paying people - iasachnye liudi 35 1730s

triumvirs - troenachal'niki 45 1766-68

troenachal'niki - triumvirs 45 1766-68

trumpeters 24

trustee - upravitel' 37 1741-44

tsaredvortsy - courtiers; senior court officials 24

tsarevich - tsar's son, heir apparent 24

tsarevna - tsar's daughter 24

tsarik - tsarlet, kinglet 15 1606-10

tsaritsa - tsar's wife 24

tsaritsa's junior boyars - tsaritsyny deti boiarskie 14 1598-1606

tsaritsa-mat' - dowager tsaritsa 14 1598-1606

tsaritsyny deti boiarskie - tsaritsa's junior boiars 14 1598-1606

tsarlet - tsarik 15 1606-10

tsarskii d'iak - secretary to the tsar 15 1606-10

tsarskii sinklit - crown councillor 15 1606-10

tseloval'nik - crown official 26 1690s

tseloval'nik - customs official 13 1584-98

tseloval'nik - tax collector, steward 37 1741-44

tseloval'niki - elected local sworn officials 24

tseloval'niki na vere - local sworn officials 25 1680s

tseremoniimeister - master of ceremonies 45 1766-68

tserkovnik - catechist 37 1741-44

tserkovnye prichetniki - ecclesiastical dignitaries 16 1613-34

tserkovnyi chin - ecclesiastical estate 15 1606-10

tserkovnyi d'iachok - parish clerk 18 16-17c

tserkovnyi starosta - church warden 24

tsezar ("Caesar") - emperor (False Dmitry) 14 1598-1606

tsezar, tsezar khristianskii - Holy Roman emperor 14 1598-1606

Tsezarevna - empress (Holy Roman empire) 45 1766-68

tsezarskoe velichestvo - imperial highness 14 1598-1606

tulnik - hatter 06 1389-1425

Turkish envoy or messenger - chiaus 13 1584-98

Turkish judges - ulema 48 1772-74

Turkish official - Pasha 48 1772-74

Turkish rank - seraskir 48 1772-74

tutor - vospitatel' 18 16-17c

tutors to tsar's sons - uchitel'ia tsarevichevye 24

typesetter - naborshchik 18 16-17c

tysiatskii - chiliarch 04 13-14c

uboitsa - assassin, armed insurgent 45 1766-68

uchitel'ia tsarevichevye - tutors to tsar's sons 24

uchitel'nye liudi - teachers 13 1584-98

udel'nyi kniaz' - appanage prince 45 1766-68

uezdnye liudi - free district peasants (N. Russ.) 45 1766-68

ulani - Tatar nobles, uhlans 07 15c

ulema - Turkish judges 48 1772-74

ulitskie starosti - street elders 16 1613-34

ulitskii karaul'shchik 18 16-17c

under-clerk - podkantserialist 38 1745-48

underaged servitor - nedorosl' 35 1730s

underling - malyi 21 17c

undersecretary - pod'iachii 15 1606-13

university graduate - bakalavr 18 16-17c

unregistered persons - izbylye liudi 18 16-17c

unter-offitser - non-commissioned officer 35 1730s

upolnomochennye - plenipotentiaries 16 1613-34

upravitel' - administrator, trustee, steward 37 1741-44

uriad grodskii - town administrator 18 16-17c

uriad(nik) - village constable 12 16c

uriadnik - low-ranking cossack officer 20 17c

uriadnik - private/trooper 26 1690s

uriadnik mirskii - lay official 18 16-17c

uriadnik zemskii - rural village constable 12 16c

ushkuinik - voyager, river pirate, raider 24

usolets - salt miner 26 1690s

ustavnik - canonarch, precentor 12 16c

ustavnik, ustavshchik - precentor 17 1634-45

ustavshchik - administrator, legist 26 1690s

ustavshchik - ecclesiarch 21 17c

uveshchatel' - admonisher 26 1690s

v zavoevodchiki - assignment to staff of voevoda 24

vagabonds - gultiai 45 1766-68

vagrants - guliashchie liudi 35 1730s

vakhmistr - sergeant-major (Guards Regiment) 37 1741-44

valet - kamerdin 38 1745-48

vasha sviatynia - your holiness 16 1613-34

vashe tsarskoe velichestvo - your majesty the tsar 16 1613-34

vassal - prisiazhnik 13 1584-98

vataman - leader of an organized group 06 1389-1425

vatazhok - chief of the vataga 45 1766-68

vdovyi pop - widowed priest 13 1584-98

vedun - sorcerer 13 1584-98

vel'mozhi - magnates 10 16c

vel'mozhnoe polozhenie - magnates' rank 20 17c

velikaia kniazina - grand princess 45 1766-68

velikie liudi - senior people 16 1613-34

velikie posly - high ambassadors 16 1613-34

velikii admiral - grand admiral 45 1766-68

velikii blizhnii boiarin - grand privy boyar 13 1584-98

velikii getman - grand hetman 48 1772-74

velikii getman koronnyi - high crown hetman 45 1766-68

velikii gosudar' - great sovereign 45 1766-68

velikii kantsler - grand chanceller 45 1766-68

velikii kaznachei koronnyi - lord high treasurer (Polish context) 45 1766-68

velikii kniaz - grand prince or grand duke 45 1766-68

velikii marshalok koronnyi - high crown marshal (polish) 45 1766-68

velikii mechnik - high swordbearer (household office). Created by False Dmitry. 14 1598-1606

velikii mogol - great mogul 38 1745-48

velikii mufti - grand mufti 38 1745-48

velikii vizir' - grand vizier 48 17-18c

velikii kantsler koronnyi - crown chancellor 46 1768-70

velmozhi - Polish magnates 11 16c

verkhovaia boirainia - high, principal boyars 24

verkhovnik - member of Supreme Privy Council 45 1766-68

verkoper - salesman 12 16c

vernaia golova - guild representative 21 17c

verniki, doverennye liudi - proxies or plenipotentiaries 12 16c

veselyi chelovek - jester 12 16c

vesovshchik - scale attendant 06 1389-1425

vicar - namestnik (ecclesiastical rank) 21 17c

vice chancellor - vitse-kantsler 48 1772-74

vice-captain (cavalry) - vitse-rotmistr 37 1741-44

vice-president - vitse-prezident 37 1741-44

vicegerent - namestnik 04 13-14c

viiskovyi sud'ia - judge (Zaporozhian Host) 20 17c

vine dresser - sadovnik 18 16-17c

vinokurnik - distiller 26 1690s

virnik - bloodwite collector 01 9-11c

visiting townsmen - priezzhie liudi 16 1613-34

vitse-admiral - vice admiral (III) 26 1690s

vitse-gubernator - vice-governor 45 1766-68

vitse-kantsler - vice-chancellor 37 1741-44

vitse-prezident - vice-president 37 1741-44

vitse-rotmistr - vice-captain (cavalry) 37 1741-44

vitse-serzhant - acting sergeant 38 1745-48

vizh - court officer (Lithuania) 12 16c

vizier - vizir' 13 1584-98

vizir' - vizier 13 1584-98

vkladchik - donor (to monastery) 17 1634-45

vkladchitsa - donoress (nun or laywoman living in convent at own expense) 35 17c

vladelets - chieftain 13 1584-98

vladetel'nyi gertsog - sovereign duke 37 1741-44

vladyka - lord, prelate, form of address used in addressing senior hierarch 45 1766-68

vlastel' - regent 13 1584-98

vlastel'/vlastelin - lord 06 1389-1425

vlasti - dignitaries (ecclesiastical) 21 17c

voennyi prezident (Austria) - president of the Military Council 35 1730s

voevoda - governor, commander 15 1606-13

voevoda - military governor 24

voevoda - military governor, commander; or mayor/viceroy (context); district lord; under Peter, governors of provinces, palatine (Lith.) 45 1766-68

voevoda - hospodar (Moldavia-Wallachia) 13 1584-98

voevoda, dvorovyi - household commander

voin - warrior 45 1766-68

voinskii komissarii - military commisar 26 1690s

voiskovaia cheliad' - army menials 14 1606-10

voiskovoi esaul - first lieutenant 25 1680s

voiskovoi pisar' - military secretary (cossack rank) 25 1680s

voiskovoi tovarishch - deputy commander 25 1680s

voit (German title) - reeve 03 12-13c

voit (W. Russ) - district chief, administrator, mayor, prefect 45 1766-68

vol'nitsa - free men, outlaws (cossack) 21 17c

vol'nitsy - irregulars 04 13-14c

vol'nonaemnyi - hired 48 1772-74

vol'nye ratnye liudi - volunteer soldiers 18 16-17c

vol'nyi piteinyi promyshlennik - free alcoholic beverage seller 24

volkhv - magus (plural magi), sorcerer, magician 03 12-13c

volnitsa - volunteers 26 1690s

voloshchanin - rural district resident 12 16c

volostel' - district chief, administrator 04 13-14c

volostel' stolnichego puti - rural district chief 45 1766-68

volostnye aretchiki - elected representatives of rural district (who sit in town hall) 24

volostnye vybornye - elected rural district officials 24

volunteer - okhotnik 13 1584-98

volunteer soldiers - vol'nye ratnye liudi 18 16-17c

volunteers - okhochye liudi 15 1606-10

vor - brigand 14 1598-1606

vor - buccaneer 21 17c

vorotnik - gatekeeper 24

vorotnoi storozh - gate watch; guard, sentinel, sentry 24

vorovskii kazak - cossack pirate 21 17c

vospitatel' - tutor 18 16-17c

vospomogatel'nye - auxiliaries 26 1690s

voyager - ushkuinik 24

voyvode (Polish) - military commander 48 1772-74

vozh - pilot 21 17c

voznyi - court investigator, judiciary agent 12 16c

vremenshchik - favorite 18 16-17c

vseuezdnyi zemskii starosta - elected county administrative chief 24

vsia voi svoia - "all his warriors" 45 1766-68

vtoroi gil'dii kupets - merchant of the second guild 48 1772-74

vtoroi voevoda - deputy governor, commander 15 1606-10

vvedennyi boiarin - privy boyar 06 1389-1425

vvedennyi d'iak - palace secretary 12 16c

vvedenyi boiarin - newly inducted boyar 08 15c

vybornye liudi - elected representatives 24 18c

vybornye strel'tsy - elected musketeers 25 1680s

vybornye golovy - elected officers 12 16c

vybornye iz gorodov dvoriane - selected provincial gentry 16 1613-34

vybornye liudi - chosen men 16 1613-34

vybornye liudi iz gorodov - elected representatives of the towns 16 1613-34

vybornyi polk - select regiment 26 1690s

vyimshchik - inspector, investigator, searcher 37 1741-44

wanderers - gultiai 45 1766-68

warden - lovchii 45 1766-68

warrior - voin 45 1766-68

watchman - storozha (clergy) 46 1768-70

wedding apparel maker - molodozhnik 45 1766-68

well-to-do citizens - zhitye muzhi 04 13-14c

wet nurse - kormilitsa 13 1584-98

white clergy (married) - beloe dukhovenstvo 24

widowed priest - vdovyi pop 13 1584-98

wine steward, cellarman - gvozdar 24

without order of precedence - bez mest 16 1613-34

witness - svedentsyi 12 16c

work hand - zakhrebetnik 24

yanichar-aga - master of the janissaries 46 1768-70

yaselnichii - master of the horse (cossack) 20 17c

young servant - detskii 03 12-13c

young servant - parobok 08 15c

your holiness (patriarch) - svoe sviatel'stvo 15 1606-10

your holiness - vasha sviatnynia 16 1613-34

your majesty the tsar - vashe tsarskoe velichestvo 16 1613-34

youth - nedorosl' 35 1730s

zabrodchik - ringleader 21 17c

zadvornye liudi/krest'iane - house slaves/serfs 26 1690s

zaezzhik - tax officer 12 16c

zakhrebetnik - work hand 24

zakladchik, zakladnik - pledgeman 01 9-11c

zakladen (pl. zakladni) - inderntured servant(s) 06 1389-1425

zakup - indentured worker 45 1776-68

zalozhnik - hostage 13 1584-98

zamkovyi uriad(nik) - castle constable 12 16c

zasechnaia - frontier officer 25 1680s

zasedatel' - assessor 25 1680s

zatinshchik - garrison soldier, stockade guard 35 1730s

zavodchik - ringleader 21 17c

zemets - petty landowner 12 16c

zemiane - Lithunian gentry class 07 15c

zemianin - native of land; landowner (gentry) 45 1766-68

zemskaia sudia - local judge 35 1730s

zemskie liudi - farmers 12 16c

zemskie liudi - resident population, inhabitants 06 1389-1425

zemskie posly - district officials (polish districts) 45 1766-68

zemskie liudi - police officers 16 1613-34

zemskii diachok - land or local secretary, as opposed to crown secretary 12 16c

zemskii diak - clerk in the district, public clerk 45 1766-68

zemskii kamerer - provincial financial auditor; treasurers 37 1741-44

zemskii komissar - provincial commissioner 37 1741-44

zemskii posol - local delegate (poland) 12 16c

zemskii pristav - (local) bailiff 24

zemskii sotskii - (local) constable 24

zemskii starosta - (elected) chief (elder) of local administration, district elder 24

zemskii tseloval'nik - court assistant 24

zheldak - soldier (in new regiments) 24

zhidovlianin - Judaizer 13 1584-98

zhil'tsy - residents of the capital 16 1613-34

zhilets - palace official 45 1766-68

zhilets - resident noble 21 17c

zhiletskie liudi - palace attendants (lower than stolniki and dvoriane moskovskie, but higher than deti boiarskie) 24

zhitichnyi golova - granary officer 25 1680s

zhitnik - supervisor of the granary 24

zhitnye liudi - well-off men, middle-class burghers (Novgorod) 45 1766-68

zhitye liudi - the well-to-do 06 1389-1425

zhitye muzhi - well-to-do citizens 04 13-14c

zholner - professional soldier (W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

zhonka (diminutive of zhena) - female slave (W. Russ.) 45 1766-68

znakhar - expert, longtime resident, broker 12 16c

znamenshchik - notary priest 12 16c

znat' - nobility, dignitaries 24

znatets - assayer 16 1613-34

znatnaia shliakhta - magnates 20 17c

znatok v zhenskikh bolezniakh - gynaecologist 13 1584-98


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