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Russia & Eurasia Facts & Figures Annual (REFFA)

(Formerly USSR Facts Figures Annual (UFFA))

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UFFA Volume 2 Contents

Introduction v

I SURVEY 1

II GOVERNMENT

  1. Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 8
  2. USSR Council of Ministers 8
  3. All-Union Ministries 9
  4. Union Republic Ministries 9
  5. State Committees 10
  6. Agencies 11
  7. Chairmen of Republic Councils of Ministers 11
  8. Agencies of the Council of Ministers Without Ministerial Rank 11
  9. Supreme Soviet of the USSR 12
  10. Supreme Court of the USSR & Procuracy 12
  11. Supreme Soviet 13
  12. Supreme Soviets of the Union Republics 13
  13. Armenia 13
  14. Azerbaidzhan 14
  15. Belorussia 14
  16. Estonia 15
  17. Georgia 15
  18. Kazakhstan 16
  19. Kirgizia 16
  20. Latvia 17
  21. Lithuania 17
  22. Moldavia 18
  23. RSFSR 18
  24. Tadzhikistan 19
  25. Turkmenistan 20
  26. Ukraine 20
  27. Uzbekistan 21
  28. Republic Councils of Ministers 21
  29. Union-Republic Ministries 22
  30. Republic Ministries 26
  31. Local Soviet (Council) Election Results, 19 June 1977 33
  32. Mayors of Moscow and Leningrad 40
  33. Diplomatic Ranks & Positions 41
  34. Soviet Ambassadors 41
  35. Soviet Embassy & Consulates in the United States 43
  36. Diplomatic Representatives Accredited to the USSR (Moscow) 44
  37. Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars or Ministers 46
  38. 1st Deputy Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars or Ministers 46
  39. Ministry of Foreign Affairs 47
  40. People's Commissars or Ministers of Foreign Affairs 47
  41. 1st Deputy Foreign Ministers 48
  42. Chief Personnel of American Embassy and Consulate in the USSR 48
  43. Leningrad Consulate 48
  44. Soviet Ambassadors to Great Britain 48
  45. British Ambassadors to Russia 49
  46. United Kingdom Embassy Personnel, Moscow 49
  47. Soviet Ambassadors to the United States 51
  48. American Ambassadors to the USSR 51
  49. Council for Mutual Economic Assistance 51
  50. CMEA Organization 51
  51. CMEA Sessions, 1949-76 52
  52. Permanent USSR Representative at the United Nations and Security Council 53
  53. Contributions to the United Nations, 1974-75 53
  54. Chairmen, Soviet State Security Forces 53
  55. Police System of the USSR 54
  56. Administrative-Territorial Units by Union Republics 55
  57. The Constitution of the USSR 56
  58. Editorial Commission for the Final Text of the USSR Constitution 80
  59. Anthem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 81
  60. Establishment of Diplomatic Relations 83
  61. Treaties in Force Between the United States and USSR, 1 Jan 1977 91

III COMMUNIST PARTY

  1. Local Party Organs 97
  2. Primary Party Organizations 97
  3. Composition of Primary Party Organizations 97
  4. Network of Primary Party Organizations 97
  5. Party Members by Education 98
  6. Party Members & Candidates by Class 98
  7. Party Members Enrolled by Class, 1971-75 98
  8. Nationality 98
  9. Party Candidates Recruited 99
  10. Party Representation in Soviets 99
  11. CPSU Politburo, 1966-78 100
  12. Departments of the Secretariat 101
  13. Party Schools 101
  14. Presidium 1952-66 101
  15. Politburo, 1919-52 102
  16. Heads of Union-Republic Central Committee Departments 102
  17. Comintern Congresses, Plenas & Meetings 104
  18. Cominform Meetings 105
  19. CPSU Congresses & Conferences 105
  20. Chairmen, First, General Secretaries of the Komsomol 106
  21. Komsomol Youth Organizations 107
  22. Komsomol Membership: USSR, 1918-77 107
  23. Young Communist League (YCL) (Komsomol) Congresses 107
  24. Komsomol 1st Secretaries, Membership, and Primary Organizations by Republics, 1 Jan 1976 108
  25. Young Pioneer Membership, Selected Years, 1922-76 108
  26. World Strength of Communist Parties 108
  27. Plena of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 112
  28. Moldavian Communist Party Candidates Recruited, 1959-74 119
  29. Moldavian Communist Party by Age, 1959-74 119
  30. Moldavian Communist Party by Education, 1959-74 120
  31. Moldavian Communist Party by Class and Occupation, 1959-74 120

IV REPUBLICS OF THE USSR

  1. USSR, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 122
  2. Armenia 122
  3. Azerbaidzhan 123
  4. Belorussia 124
  5. Estonia 124
  6. Georgia 125
  7. Kazakhstan 125
  8. Kirgizia 126
  9. Latvia 126
  10. Lithuania 127
  11. Moldavia 127
  12. RSFSR, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 128
  13. Tadzhikistan 128
  14. Turkmenistan, Turkmenia 129
  15. Ukraine 129
  16. Uzbekistan 130
  17. European USSR, Central Asia & Kazakhstan (Maps) 131-132

V DEMOGRAPHY

  1. Projected Population-USSR: 1 Jan 1977-2000 133
  2. Projected Population by Age Groups and Sex 134
  3. Projected Population by 5-Year Age Groups and Sex, 1975-2000-The RSFSR 136
  4. The Ukranian SSR 137
  5. The Belorussian SSR 138
  6. The Moldavian SSR 139
  7. The Kazakh SSR 140
  8. The Baltic Region 141
  9. The Transcaucasus Region 142
  10. The Central Asian Region 143
  11. Population by Republic and Economic Region, 1959, 1970 144
  12. Territory and Population of Republics, Krais, Oblasts and National Okrugs 145
  13. Maps Published in the USSR, 1975 151
  14. Population, Birth and Death Rates, 1917-78 151
  15. Ethnic Composition of Population by Republics 1959, 1970 153
  16. Major Nationalities of the USSR on a Linguistic Basis 155
  17. Births by Age Groups 155
  18. Births in Urban & Rural Localities 155
  19. Family Size, 1970 156
  20. Children by Order of Births, 1965, 1975, 157
  21. Births per 1,000 Women by Ages, 1965-66, 1974-75 157
  22. Registered Marriages and Divorces 157
  23. Nonagenarians and Centenarians, 1959, 1970 157
  24. Mortality by Age Groups 158
  25. Distribution of Cities by Population, 1926, 1959, 1970 158
  26. Urban Population, Selected Years, 1917-76 158
  27. Urban Population and its Annual Rate of Growth During Preceding Decade, 1920-2000 159
  28. Million-City Population as a Percentage of Total Population 159
  29. Distribution of Population & Industrial Capacity, 1970 159
  30. Urbanization in the Ukraine, 1939, 1959, 1970 159
  31. Cities with Over 250,000 Inhabitants, 1975 160
  32. Urban & Rural Population by Republics, 1976 163
  33. Soviet New Towns 164

VI ARMED FORCES

  1. Ministry of Defense 168
  2. Personnel 171
  3. United States and Soviet: Active Military/Paramilitary Manpower Strengths, FY 1976 171
  4. United States and Soviet: Civilian Manpower Strengths, FY 1976 172
  5. United States and Soviet: Ready Reserve Strengths, FY 1976 172
  6. Ground Forces, 1970-76 173
  7. USSR Division Strengths and Equipment 174
  8. Ground Force Firepower, 1970-76 174
  9. Strategic Force Comparisons, 1970-76 175
  10. Strategic Defensive Missile Systems 175
  11. Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles 175
  12. Ballistic Missile Submarine Systems 176
  13. SLBM's 176
  14. Warheads 177
  15. Strategic Nuclear Bombers 177
  16. ICBM Programs 178
  17. US and Soviet SLBM Developments 179
  18. Soviet Missiles 180
  19. Strategic Missiles 180
  20. Surface-to-Surface 180
  21. Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles 181
  22. Cruise or Winged Missiles 181
  23. Tactical Missiles 182
  24. Anti-Tank 182
  25. Short-Range 183
  26. Medium-Range 183
  27. Anti-Ballistic 183
  28. Surface-to-Air 183
  29. Air-to-Surface 185
  30. Air-to-Air 185
  31. Tactical Air-Force Comparisons, 1970-76 186
  32. Military Airlift, 1970-76 186
  33. Ship Characteristics 187
  34. Patrol Craft Characteristics-Soviet Union 188
  35. Naval Obsolescence 188
  36. Out-of-Area Ship Days, 1965-75 189
  37. Naval Deployments to the Caribbean, 1969-76 189
  38. Air Deployments to Cuba, 1970-76 189
  39. Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) Structure 190
  40. Military Districts & Command Centers 190
  41. Central European Forces, 1976 191
  42. Deployment of Forces in East Germany 191
  43. Headquarters 191
  44. Military Expenditures: USSR 192
  45. Military Expenditures: Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) 192
  46. Military Expenditures: NATO 193
  47. Arms Transfers: USSR 193
  48. Arms Transfers: Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) 193
  49. Arms Transfers: NATO 194
  50. US Secretary of Defense Annual Estimates of Strategic Nuclear Weapons, FY 1973-77 194
  51. US Defense Budget, FY 1978-82 195
  52. Nuclear Capability Comparisons 196
  53. Comparison of Alternative Indices of Capability (After a Counter Force Exchange) 196
  54. Balance of Deployed Forces (Static or Pre-Attack Levels) 197
  55. Capabilities after Soviet Union First Strike 198
  56. Soviet Population Fatalities (Surviving US Strategic Forces) 199
  57. Peak Overpressure and Nuclear Warhead Size Against Submarines 201
  58. Area and Range of Nuclear Blast Damage 201
  59. Hard Target Kill Capability 202
  60. Effect of Industrial Hardening on Warhead Requirements 202
  61. Impact of Tankers on Soviet Barrier Distance Against US Cruise Missiles 202
  62. Military and Civilian Aircraft Characteristics 203
  63. Comparison of US and USSR Tanks, Bombers, and Interceptors 206
  64. Armored Vehicles 207
  65. Artillery 207
  66. Weapons for Ground Forces: USSR, US, PRC 208
  67. USSR/US Average Annual Weapons Production Rates, 1972-76 208
  68. Military Personnel from Less Developed Countries (LDC) Trained in Communist Nations and the USSR, 1955-76 208
  69. Soviet Military Aid to LDCs, Extensions & Drawings 209
  70. Soviet and East European Military Technicians in LDCs, 1976 209
  71. Export of Major Weapons to eveloping Regions by Major Suppliers, 1971-75 210
  72. Communist and Komsomol Among Army and Navy Officers 211
  73. Party Members and Primary Party Organizations in the Red Army, 1918-41 211
  74. Military Ranks 212
  75. USSR and United States Research and Development 213

VII THE ECONOMY

  1. State Budget, 1975-78 215
  2. State Budget by Union Republics, 1977-78 215
  3. USSR & US: Average Annual & Absolute Growth Rates, 1951-75 216
  4. USSR in World & European Production, 1913, 1975 217
  5. Summary of 1977-78 Plans 218
  6. Summary of 10th Five-Year Plan 219
  7. Index of the 10th Five-Year Plan, 1976-80 219
  8. Summary of 10th Five-Year Plan, 1976-80 220
  9. Index of 10th Five-Year Plan by Republics 220
  10. Siberian Centers (Map) 221
  11. 1978 Plan in Physical Terms 222
  12. 1977 Plan Fulfillment by Republics 223
  13. 1977 Plan Fulfillment by Ministries & Departments 224
  14. Policy-Conditioned Forecasts of Soviet Growth 224
  15. Percentage Increase in Productivity Needed to Maintain GNP Growth at 5 Percent 225
  16. Annual Average Rate of Growth of GNP, Inputs, and Productivity, 1951-80 225
  17. Average Annual Percentage Increase of Industrial Production, Employment, and Output per Worker, 1961-76 225
  18. Economic Regions 226
  19. Capital Investments by Union Republic, 1975 229
  20. Industrial Production in Physical Terms, 1975-77 229
  21. Industrial Production in Physical Terms by Quarters, 1977 231
  22. Industrial Capacities Put in Operation, 1976-77 233
  23. Production of Equipment for Various Industries 234
  24. Light Industrial Production 235
  25. Production of Cast Iron, Steel, Rolled Ferrous Metals and Steel Pipes 236
  26. Production of Motor Vehicles 236
  27. Motor Vehicle Registrations, 1969-74 237
  28. Passenger Car Production by Model (1975) and Price (1972) 237
  29. Owners of Passenger Cars 237
  30. Mineral Reserves in Communist Nations & the US 237
  31. Estimated Petroleum Reserves 238
  32. USSR Energy Needs 238
  33. Distribution of Iron-Ore Output, 1970, 1975-76, 1980 239
  34. Distribution of Pig Iron Production, 1970, 1975-77, 1980 239
  35. Coal Production, 1970-1975-76, 1980 239
  36. Production of Primary Tin, 1965, 1970-75 240
  37. USSR/US Imports of Strategic Material 241
  38. Mined Tin Production by Regions, Principal Mines and Concentrating Plants 241
  39. Mine and Concentrating Plants 242
  40. Uranium Oxide Resources 243
  41. Heating Values of Energy Resources 243
  42. Production of Mineral Commodities, 1976 243
  43. Gold Production and Reserves, 1965-76 245
  44. Diamond Production 245
  45. Principal Basins and Deposits of Fossil Fuels, Metals, and Nonmetals, USSR (Map) 246-247
  46. Fuel and Power Resources of Regions 248
  47. Differences in Fuel, Electric Power and Water Resources by Region 248
  48. Fuel Production by Republic, 1975 249
  49. Primary Energy Production, 1976 249
  50. Production of Electrical Energy, 1970, 1975, 1980 250
  51. Capacities of Electrical Power Stations, 1975, 1980 250
  52. Distribution of Power Production, 1970, 1975-76, 1980 250
  53. Fuel Peat Production, 1913-75 251
  54. Countries with Nuclear Reactors and Capacity, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980 252
  55. USSR Installed Nuclear Reactor Capacity 253
  56. Siberian Power Grid, 1 Jan 1976 253
  57. Research, Experimental and Power Reactors, 1975, 1980 254
  58. Crude Oil Production 254
  59. Production of Crude Oil by Regions 255
  60. Oil Consumption 256
  61. Natural Gas Production 256
  62. Regional Production of Natural Gas, 1976 256
  63. Natural Gas Consumption 256
  64. Selected Data on Oil Drilling 256
  65. Gas, Pipelines, Distribution 257
  66. Additions to Oil Producing Capacity 257
  67. Soviet Coal and Hydrocarbon Resources (Map) 258
  68. Chemical Output, 1960-74 259
  69. Index of CMEA Industrial Production, 1976 259
  70. Index of CMEA Retail Trade Turnover, 1976 259
  71. Index of CMEA Capital Investment, 1976 260
  72. Index of CMEA National Income, 1976 260
  73. Index of CMEA Labor Productivity, 1976 260
  74. Index of CMEA Foreign Trade, 1976 260
  75. Foreign Currency Exchange Rates 261
  76. Denominations of Soviet Money 261
  77. Profits in the National Economy 262
  78. Bank Credits to the National Economy and Population, Loans at Year End 263
  79. Short-Term Credits to the National Economy by Type, Loans at Year End 264
  80. Expansion of the Soviet "Second" (Illegal-Extralegal or Private) Economy 265
  81. Deposits in Savings Banks and Gosbank 265
  82. Automated Management Systems Put in Operation, 1966-76 266
  83. Comparison of Computer Base to GNP and Population, 1974 266
  84. Production of RIAD (RYAD) Computer Models 266
  85. Retail Turnover of State and Cooperative Trade, 1976 267
  86. Inventions & Rationalizations in the National Economy 267
  87. East European Debt to the West 268
  88. Sources of Hard Currency, 1977-78 268
  89. Hard Currency Balance of Payments, 1974-76 268
  90. Estimated Drawings and Scheduled Repayments on Medium and Long-Term Credits 269
  91. Year-End Net Debt Ratio to Hard Currency Exports 269
  92. Hydraulic Cement Output, Selected Years, 1913-75 270
  93. Production of Cement by Grade, 1975 271
  94. Average Price Changes 271

VIII AGRICULTURE

  1. 1977 Agricultural Summary 272
  2. Grain Production, 1962-76 273
  3. Total Supply and Estimated Utilization of Grain, Jul-Jun 1964-77 274
  4. Wheat Production and Consumption, 1974-75 275
  5. Feed Use of Major Feed Grains and Wheat as a Percentage of World Production, 1960-61/1976-77 275
  6. Grains: Area, Yield & Production, 1971-77 275
  7. Sown Area by Republics 276
  8. Sown Area by Republics, 1975 278
  9. Wheat and Wheat Flour 279
  10. Grains 279
  11. Comparative Total Grain Yields 279
  12. Comparative Rice Areas & Yields 279
  13. Production of Sunflower Seed and Soybeans, 1970-76 280
  14. Government Procurements of Grain, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1965-75 281
  15. Government Procurements of Nongrain Crops, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970-76, 1980 282
  16. Government Purchases of Vegetables, 1965-74 282
  17. Livestock, 1 Jan 1977-78 282
  18. Livestock, 1950-77 283
  19. Livestock by Republics, 1 Jan 1976 283
  20. Production of Principal Livestock Products, 1950-76 284
  21. Livestock Production by Republics 285
  22. State Purchases from Collective Farms: Dairy, Fowl & Cattle, 1976-77 286
  23. Private Agricultural Production 287
  24. Tractor Production by Major Types, 1950, 1955, 1960-75 288
  25. Tractor Parks and Agricultural Machinery 288
  26. Refined Sugar Production from Domestic Beets and Imported Raw Cane, Monthly and Cumulative, 1974-75/1976-77 289
  27. Fertilizer Production and Consumption, 1973-76 290
  28. Deliveries of Mineral Fertilizers to Agriculture, 1965-76 290
  29. Efforts to Improve Cropland, 1975-80 291
  30. Irrigation & Drainage, 1 Nov 1975 & 10th Five-Year Plan 291
  31. Total Irrigated & Drained Areas, 1940-80 291
  32. Timber Cut 291
  33. Timber Products, 1975 292
  34. Sovkhoz and Kolkhoz Development, 1950-76 292
  35. Indices of Kolkhoz & Sovkhoz Development 293
  36. Average Sovkhoz and Kolkhoz, 1975-76 293
  37. Capital and Power Per Worker on Labor Productivity of Collective and State Farms, 1974 294
  38. Conversion Table for Major Crops 295
  39. Soviet Exports of Wheat, FY 1951-76 295
  40. Soviet Exports of Feed Grains, FY 1951-76 295
  41. United States Exports of Grains to the USSR, 1971-77 296
  42. Commodity Credit Corporation Extensions to the USSR, 1972-74 296
  43. Fisheries Catch, 1913-74 296
  44. Catch by Fishing Areas, 1965, 1970-74 297
  45. Percentage of Total Catch 297
  46. Capital Investment in Fishing Industry, 1929-75 297
  47. Fish Catch by Species, 1975 298
  48. Fish Products, 1975 300

IX FOREIGN TRADE & AID

  1. Foreign Trade, 1913-77 301
  2. Ministry of Foreign Trade 301
  3. Foreign Trade Associations (V/O) and Offices (V/K) 303
  4. Soviet Trade Representatives, United States 307
  5. Amtorg Trading Corporation 308
  6. Foreign Trade, 1970-75 310
  7. Foreign Trade by Country Category, 1946-75 310
  8. Foreign Trade by Countries, 1975 311
  9. Soviet Trade with Selected Countries, 1958-777 313
  10. Dollar Value of US Commodity License Applications Processed, Licenses Issued, and Actual Exports to the USSR, East Europe, and People's Republic of China 314
  11. Soviet Foreign Trade with the US, 1970-75 315
  12. Soviet Crude Oil Imports, 1970-75 316
  13. Prices of Soviet Oil and Products, 1970-75 317
  14. Soviet Economic Assistance to Cuba 318
  15. Cuban Foreign Trade Adjusted to Exclude Soviet Price Subsidies 319
  16. Soviet Subsidies of Cuban Sugar, 1960-75 320
  17. Soviet Economic Credits, Grants & Technicians to Less Developed Countries (LDCs), 1954-76 321
  18. Soviet Economic Aid to LDCs, Extensions & Drawings 322
  19. Unidentified Soviet Foreign Trade 322
  20. Number of Projects Built or Under Construction in Developing Countries with Soviet Assistance, 1 Jan 1976 328
  21. Geographical Distribution of Soviet Industrial Projects in Asia and Africa, 1 Jan 1976 328
  22. Compensation Agreements Under Negotiation 329
  23. USSR: Known Plant and Equipment Orders from the West by Selected Countries 329
  24. Selected Soviet Joint Stock Companies in Non-Communist Countries 330
  25. United States Companies with Science and Technology Agreements with the Soviet State Committee for Science and Technology, 1972-76 331
  26. US Commercial Office Seminar-Exhibits in Moscow, 1978 331
  27. United States-USSR Maritime Agreement: Grain Cargoes, 1Jul 1972-31 Dec 1975 332
  28. Dollar-Ruble Equivalents, 1961-77 332

X HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE

  1. Expenditures for Social-Cultural Measures in the State Budget, 1940-74 333
  2. Personal Disposable Income 334
  3. Personal Money Income 334
  4. Annual Percentage Increase in Real Income, 1958-77 335
  5. Household Stocks of Consumer Durables, 1975 335
  6. Growth in Per Capita Consumption 335
  7. USSR & US: Economic Indicators & Living Standards, 1975 336
  8. Number of Students by Instruction 337
  9. General Education Day Schools 337
  10. Population with Higher & Secondary Education, 1976 338
  11. Curriculum for Complete Secondary Schools 338
  12. Enrollment in Higher & Specialized Secondary Schools 339
  13. Doctor and Candidate of Science Degrees Awarded in 1976 339
  14. Higher and Secondary Specialized Institutions of the Ministry of Education RSFSR, 1976 339
  15. Kindergartens and Nurseries 339
  16. Students in Higher & Secondary Specialized Education by Specialties 340
  17. Engineers Graduated in the USSR & United States 340
  18. Graduation of Specialists in Chemistry from Higher Educational Institutions, 1950, 1958-75 340
  19. Number of Graduates to the Economy, 1941-75, 1975 341
  20. Dwellings Completed by Year and per 1000 Inhabitants, 1965-76 341
  21. Annual Housing Shortfall, 1965-76 342
  22. Average Useful Space of New Housing, 1965-76 342
  23. Stock of Housing and Average Space Per Capita, Selected Years, 1913-75 343
  24. Urban Housing per Capita by Republic Capitals, 1975 343
  25. Pensioners by Republic and Category, 1 Jan 1976 344
  26. Pensioners, Selected Years, 1941-76 344
  27. Expenditures from State Social Insurance Budget, Selected Years, 1950-75 345
  28. Diet 345
  29. Sugar Production, Consumption and Trade, 1960-75 346
  30. Per Capita Consumption of Centrifugal Sugar, 1960-75 346
  31. USSR Sugar Trade, 1975 346
  32. Physicians by Union Republics, 1975 347
  33. Physicians by Speciality 347
  34. Hospitals by Republic 347
  35. Middle Level Medical Personnel, 1960, 1970, 1975 348
  36. Illness by Infectious Diseases (in thousands) 348
  37. Illness by Infectious Diseases (per 100,000) 349
  38. Physicians & Hospital Beds, 1975, 1977 349
  39. Average Life Expectancy in Russia and the US 349
  40. Abortions, Jan 1958-Jan 1959 350
  41. Reasons for Abortions Given to Survey of 26,000 Women in the RSFSR, 1958-59 350

XI COMMUNICATIONS

  1. Newspapers, Radios, Televisions, Cinemas, 1975-76 351
  2. Mail Traffic, Telegrams, Telephones in Use 351
  3. Telegrams 351
  4. Telephones in Use 351
  5. Periodicals 352
  6. Newspapers 357
  7. Newspapers by the Republics 358
  8. Publishers 374
  9. Press Bureaux (Moscow) 375
  10. Radio and Television 376
  11. Television Stations, 1940, 1950, 1960-76 376
  12. Radio and Television Receiving Network, 1928, 1940, 1950, 1955-75 376
  13. Radio and Television Sets per 1,000 Persons, 1928, 1940, 1950, 1960-75 377
  14. Radio Moscow, North American Service 378
  15. Moscow Radio, Pacific Coast Service 378
  16. Soviet Radio International Frequencies, Autumn and Winter, 1977-78 379
  17. Books and Brochures Published, 1913-76 380
  18. Books & Brochures in Languages of the USSR & Abroad, 1975 381
  19. Languages of the USSR 381
  20. Translations from Languages of the USSR 384
  21. Translations from Foreign Languages 384
  22. Books and Brochures Published by Themes, 1975 385
  23. Publication of Foreign Belles-Lettres, 1975, 1918-75 386
  24. Publication of Antireligious Books, 1935, 1945, 1950, 1956-73 387
  25. Publication of Antireligious Articles in Central Press, 1965-76 387
  26. Dissertations on Scientific Atheism, 1964-70 387
  27. Film Production, 1940, 1950, 1960-75, 1976 388
  28. Major Soviet Films, 1918-75 388
  29. Major Film Studios 415

XII TRANSPORTATION

  1. Freight Traffic, Selected Years, 1913-77 (ton-kilometers) 417
  2. Freight Traffic, Selected Years, 1913-75 (billion short ton-miles) 418
  3. Transport of Foreign Trade Cargoes, 1975 419
  4. Railroads 419
  5. Inventory of Railroad Cars, Civilian Aircraft and Trucks 420
  6. Railroads, Selected Years, 1925-75 421
  7. Freight Train Performance, Selected Years, 1925-75 422
  8. Railroad Passenger Traffic, Selected Years, 1925-75 423
  9. Railroad Freight Traffic, Five-Year Intervals, 1930-75 424
  10. USSR Ministry of the Maritime Fleet Organization 425
  11. Merchant Vessels Planned for Delivery, 1976-80 425
  12. Merchant Fleet, 1970-76 426
  13. Ocean Steam & Motor Ships of 1000 Gross Tons and Over 426
  14. Ports 427
  15. Soviet Civil Air Activities in the Third World 430
  16. Aeroflot Airliners 430
  17. Specifications of New Soviet Aircraft 431
  18. Traffic Control in Moscow, 1977 432
  19. Metro Transit, 1975 432
  20. Notable Stations of the Moscow Metro 433

XIII INSTITUTIONS

  1. Academy of Sciences 434
  2. Academy Members and Corresponding (Non-Voting) Members 435
  3. Academy Sections 450
  4. Presidents of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, 1917-76 451
  5. The Academy of Sciences of the USSR 452
  6. Academies of Science, 1 Jan 1976 453
  7. Membership of the Znanie Society, 1947-76 455
  8. Znanie Society Board 455
  9. Religion 455
  10. Estimated Church Membership, 1964 459
  11. Churches and Synagogues in the USSR 459
  12. Military Academies 460
  13. State Universities 462
  14. Museums, 1975 463
  15. Mass Libraries, 1975-77 464
  16. Circles of Amateur Performers of the Ministry of Culture, 1975 464
  17. XIV LABOR
  18. Annual Average Employment in the National Economy of the USSR: 1950 to 1975 465
  19. Annual Average Employment in the State Sector in the USSR, by Branch of the Economy: 1950 to 1975 467
  20. Annual Average Workers and
  21. Employees in the Economy 468
  22. Working Age Population, 1955-90 469
  23. Employment by Branches of the Economy, ILO Estimates 469
  24. Average Monthly Wages of Workers and Employees 469
  25. Average Wages and Supplemental Benefits, 1975 470
  26. Average Monthly Wages by Industries 470
  27. Trade Union Chairmen, Membership, and Primary Organizations by Republics, 1 Jan 1976 471
  28. Unions and Chairmen 471
  29. Plenum All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, 25 Mar 1977 472
  30. Trade Union Congresses 472
  31. Percentage of Women in the Economy by Branches 473
  32. Part-Time Work among Women 473
  33. Labor Turnover by Industries, 1960, 1970 474
  34. Labor Turnover, Borisov, Belorussia, 1974 474
  35. Reasons for Leaving Employment 474
  36. Education of Job Changers 475
  37. Interval Between Jobs 475

XIV SPECIAL TOPICS

  1. 1977 in Review 476
  2. Natural Features 495
  3. Geographical Records in the USSR 496
  4. River Flow and Drainage 497
  5. Proposals to Divert Northern and Siberian Rivers to Kazakhstan and Central Asia 497
  6. Passes 498
  7. Active Volcanoes 498
  8. Average Rainfall (mm) and Temperatures (C), Representative Cities 500
  9. Dates of Snow Cover, Representative Cities 502
  10. World's Highest 502
  11. Largest Dams 502
  12. Major Dams 503
  13. World's Greatest Man-Made Lakes 504
  14. World's Largest Hydroelectric Generating Plants 504
  15. Potential Tidal Power Projects 505
  16. Tidal Ranges 505
  17. Time Zones 505
  18. US Postal Rates to the USSR 506
  19. Soviet Postal, Telephone and Cablegram Rates to United States 507
  20. Comparative Clothing Sizes 507
  21. Distance Between Cities 508
  22. Soviet Partisan Activity During WW II 509
  23. Soviet Losses During World War II 510
  24. Russian-Born Population in United States, 1850-1970 510
  25. Native American Population of Russian or Mixed Parentage, 1900-70 510
  26. State Prizes, 1977 511
  27. M. V. Lomonosov Gold Medal, 1976 514
  28. Karl Marx Gold Medal, 1977 514
  29. Lenin Prize "for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples," 1975-76 514
  30. Prizes of the Union of Journalists, 1976 514
  31. Russian Rulers, 1462-Nov 1917 515
  32. Tourism, 1975 516
  33. Travelers by Republic, 1975 516
  34. IASP Translation Journals 517
  35. Central Intelligence Agency Reference Aids on the USSR 517
  36. Subjects of the Literaturnoe Nasledstvo (Literary Heritage) Series 518
  37. Moscow Militia, 1977 520
  38. Metropolitan Museum of Art Exhibits 520
  39. Soviet Exhibits in the United States, June 1961-Feb 1977 521
  40. US Exhibits in the USSR, 1959-77 523
  41. Reference Aids on Soviet Philosophy 524
  42. US Announced Recordings of Seismic Signals from Presumed Soviet Underground Nuclear Detonations, 1974-77 525
  43. Satellite Launches, 1977 526
  44. Soviet Missile Test Centers 529
  45. Space Launch Vehicles 530
  46. Satellites 531
  47. Jewish Emigration from the USSR, 1972-76 531
  48. Emigration of Ethnic Germans from the USSR, 1972-76 532
  49. Soviet Emigrants to the US, 1972-76 532
  50. Divided Family Cases Pending Between the United States and USSR 532
  51. Soviet Exit Visas for Private Visits to Relatives in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, 1975-76 532
  52. Binational Marriage Cases Pending Between the United States and USSR, 1 May 1977 532
  53. Soviet Aliens in US, 1977 532
  54. Soviet Wines 533
  55. Soviet Vodkas 538
  56. Abbreviations and Soviet Organizations 538
  57. Transliteration Systems 547
  58. Weights & Measures 548
  59. Old Russian Weights & Measures 548
  60. Total & Per Capita Consumption of Absolute Alcohol, 1972 548
  61. Obituaries, 1977 548
  62. Sports Titles & Ranks 552
  63. Sports Facilities, 1975 553
  64. Moscow Summer Games of the XXII Olympiad 553
  65. Spartakiads of the Peoples of the USSR 554
  66. Official World Records: USSR 554
  67. Key Works on Russia and the Soviet Union 555

 

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